The Role of Government to Supply Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle in Korea and Japan

수소연료전지자동차 보급을 위한 정부의 역할: 한국과 일본의 사례를 중심으로

  • SON, MINHEE (Green School, Grad. school of Energy and Environment, Korea University) ;
  • NAM, SUKWOO (Green School, Grad. school of Energy and Environment, Korea University) ;
  • KIM, KYUNGNAM (Green School, Grad. school of Energy and Environment, Korea University)
  • 손민희 (고려대학교 그린스쿨대학원) ;
  • 남석우 (고려대학교 그린스쿨대학원) ;
  • 김경남 (고려대학교 그린스쿨대학원)
  • Received : 2016.01.30
  • Accepted : 2016.02.28
  • Published : 2016.02.29


A fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) could be an alternative solution to gasoline powered vehicles. The Korean and Japanese governments have played the midwifery role in the development of the FCEV industry. This study explores the difference in policy goals for FCEV between the two countries. Koreans recognized that FCEV was innovative technology and put forward the notion of technology pre-occupancy. Whereas, the Japanese government discovered that FCEV was one way to apply hydrogen mechanisms, so they identified the supply of hydrogen as one of the industries of interest, and have played the demiurge role. This study suggests that the role of government is to introduce eco-friendly vehicles, using the cases of Korean and Japanese governments, who introduced FCEV to the world first.


Fuel Cell Eelectric Vehicle;Hydrogen energy policy;Hydrogen Station;Hydrogen economy


Grant : 특화전문대학원연계학연협력

Supported by : 한국과학기술연구원


  1. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, "NEDO Hydrogen Energy White Paper", July 2014, p. 11.
  2. S. A. Hong, "The hydrogen economy is coming," Science and Technology. No. 515, April. 2012, p. 12-15.
  3. Climate Action, European Commission, "2050 low-carbon economy",, (Search date: December 9th 2015).
  4. CEP, "Clean Energy Partnership",, (Search date: December 9th 2015).
  5. Deutschlandkarten Ausbau Wasserstoffstationen, "H2 Mobility",, (Search date: December 8th 2015),
  6. The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership, "H2moves Scandinavian", (Search date: January 5th 2016).
  7. The California Environmental Protection Agency, Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program,, (Search date: December 9th 2015).
  8. Ministry of knowledge economy, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, "Green Car Development Strategies and Projects", December 2010.
  9. Toyota Global Neswsroom, "A The Joint Statement on the domestic market introduction and the hydrogen supply infrastructure development of fuel cell vehicles",, January 13rd 2011, (Search date: 1st June 2015).
  10. R. Anahara, S. Yokokawa, M. Sakurai, Present status and future prospects for fuel cell power systems, Proc IEEE, No. 81, 1993, p. 399-408.
  11. J. Y. Yoo, "Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Activities in Korea.", IPHE Steering Committee Meeting, 2004.
  12. H. Ishitani, Y. Baba, "The Japanese strategy for R&D on fuel-cell technology and on-road verification test of fuel-cell vehicles.", Making choices about hydrogen: Transport issues for developing countries, United Nations University Press, 2008, p. 64-84.
  13. S. K. Lee, G. Mogi, J. W. Kim. "Energy technology roadmap for the next 10 years: The case of Korea.", Energy Policy, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2009, p. 588-596.
  14. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, "NEDO Hydrogen Energy White Paper", July 2014, p. 11.
  15. OECD, HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELLS of RD&D Budget in Korea and Japan", (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  16. Hyundai motors, "The first "Tucson ix hydrogen fuel cell vehicles delivered in Guangju", Press release, June 10th 2014.
  17. Toyota Global Neswsroom, "TOYOTA, sedan type of the new fuel cell vehicle "Mirai" released",, Nov. 18th 2014 (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  18. Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, "The 3rd National Eco-friendly Motor Vehicle Development and Distribution Plan", December 8th 2015.
  19. Next Generation Vehicle Promotion Center (NeV), "2014 fiscal year fuel cell vehicles for hydrogen supply equipment installation auxiliary business grant decision contents",, (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  20. Next Generation Vehicle Promotion Center (NeV), "2013 fiscal year fuel cell vehicles for hydrogen supply equipment installation auxiliary business grant decision contents",, (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  21. B.Y. Kim, "Industrial policy in South Korea and Japan in the age of globalization", Social Sciences Journal of Daejeon University, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1998, p. 359-376.
  22. World Bank, "The East Asian miracle : economic growth and public policy", 1993, Washington DC, World bank.
  23. J. E. Stiglitz, "Some lessons from the East Asian miracle." The world Bank research observer, Vol. 11 No. 2, 1996, p. 151-177.
  24. P. B. Evans, "Embedded Autonomy", 1995, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.
  25. W. J. Rho, "The Characteristics of Strategic Development Management of Korean Government : The Implementation Processes of the Heavy and Chemical Industry Drive as Strategic Moves", Korean Public Administration Review, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2001, p. 41-61.
  26. M. J. LEE, The role of government in the Chinese information technology industrialization process, National Strategy, Vol. 11, No. 1, April 2005.
  27. S. W. Park, "Fuel Cell Vehicle as the regime of new social-technology", Science and technology policy, No. 154, August 2005, p. 57-74.
  28. R. Hoogma, "Experimenting for sustainable transport: the approach of strategic niche management". Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 20, No. 5, September 2008, p. 537-554.
  29. M. Mazzucato, The entrepreneurial state: Debunking public vs. private sector myths. Vol. 1. Anthem Press, 2013, London.
  30. M. Goggin, A. Bowman. J. Lester, L. O'Toole jr, "Implementation theory and practice: Toward a third.", 1990, NY, Haper Collins.
  31. H. Y. Kim, "A study on Influences of Policy Goal Ambiguity on Policy Implementation", Public Policy Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, p. 73-96.
  32. H. G. Rainey, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, 1991, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  33. T. W. Kwon, Y. H. Chun, "Antecedents of Policy Program Goal Ambiguity in Korean Government", KOREAN POLICY STUDIES REVIEW, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2015, p. 167-199.
  34. J. W. Lee, H. G. Rainey, Y. H. Chun, "Of Politics and Purpose: Political Salience and Goal Ambiguity of US Federal Agencies, Public Administration, Vol.87, No. 3 p. 457-484.
  35. R. Nakamura, F. Smallwood, The politics of policy implementation, 1980, New York, St. Martin's Press.
  36. G. Vasudeva, "How national institutions influence technology policies and firms' knowledge-building strategies: A study of fuel cell innovation across industrialized countries.", Research Policy, Vol. 38, No. 8, 2009, p. 1248-1259.
  37. T. Kamimoto, "Summary of JHFC Activities.", Report on 4th Seminar, Joint Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Project, Japan, 2006.
  38. J. Tomoru, "Current status of JHFC project." IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, USA, February 25-26th 2010.
  39. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, "Full launch of FCVs in the market slated for 2015.",, (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  40. OECD, Innovation in energy technology, OECD Publishing, 2006, Paris.
  41. M. Rechtin, "Future products: Hyundai's push will change the look of showrooms.", Autoweek Crain Communications, Inc. Detroit, MI, 2010.
  42. Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning, "2013 Statistics",, (Search date: December 15t h 2015)
  43. D. Winter, "2015 Winner: Hyundai 100-kW Fuel Cell.", WardsAuto, December 31st 2014.
  44. Hyundai motors, "Tucson ix Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle prices slashed", Press release, February 2nd 2015.
  45. Ministry of Environment, "Guidelines on Subsidy Process" December 2013, p. 1.
  46. Ministry of Environment, "Eco-Friendly Car Purchases Support Greatly Expanded", Press release, February 5th 2015.
  47. Bureau of Environment Tokyo Metropolitan Government, "Tokyo Fuel Cell Vehicles Subsidies", en/fcv.html, (Search date: Jun 1st 2015).
  48. Japan Automobile Dealers Association, "TOYOYA Mirai registration number (unties) in 2014, 2015", July 1 2015.
  49. J. Alazemi, J. Andrews, "Automotive hydrogen fuelling stations: An international review.", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 48, No.201, 2015, p. 483-499.
  50. OECD, 2012 Population in Germany and USA and Korea and Japan, (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  51. T. H. Lee, "Hydrogen and fuel cell activities in Korea.", Northeast Asia Energy Outlook Seminar, May 6th 2008, Washington, D.C
  52. "HyWays",, (Search date: June 1st 2015)
  53. The California Air Resources Board (ARB), "Hydrogen Vehicle Infrastructure",, (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  54. CNN, "Could hydrogen be the fuel of the future?", March 16 2001, (Search date: 5th December 2015).
  55. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, the Japanese government 2014. "About the current state of efforts toward the realization of a hydrogen society",, February 3rd 2014 (Search date: June 1st 2015).
  56. H. T. Odum, "Environment, power, and society", 1971, New York, Wiley-Interscience.
  57. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010, November 2010, p. 419-444.
  58. Next Generation Vehicle Promotion Center (NeV), "Government efforts to next-generation automobiles spread",, (Search date: December 5th 2015).
  59. K. M. Kim, Policy for the introduction of FCEV supporting and expanding plan, JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL WORLD, Korea Electric Association, No. 419, 2010, p. 45-49.
  60. Toyota Global Neswsroom,, "January 15 delivered a future in the Prime Minister's Office",, January 16th 2015, (Search date: December 5th 2015).
  61. Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, "Iwatani hydrogen station Shiba Park" opening ceremony",, Apr. 13th 2015, (Search date: December 5th 2015).
  62. A. E. Farrell, D. W. Keith, Corbett, J. J, "A strategy for introducing hydrogen into transportation", Energy Policy, Vol. 31, 2003, p. 1357-1367.
  63. S. W. Park, "Strategic Niche Management for Enhancing Feasibility of the Hydrogen Economy", Trans. of the Korean Hydrogen and New Energy Society, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2011, p. 274-282.
  64. D. C. Jun, "A Study on Safety Policies for a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy", Trans. of the Korean Hydrogen and New Energy Society, Vol. 25, No.2, 2014, p.161-172.
  65. M. W. Melaina, "Initiating hydrogen infrastructures: preliminary analysis of a sufficient number of initial hydrogen stations in the US.", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 28, No. 7, 2003, p. 743-755.