A Study on the Hydrodynamic Effect of Biofouling on Marine Propeller

선박 프로펠러 표면의 생물부착물이 프로펠러 유체역학적 성능에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

Seo, Kwang-Cheol;Atlar, Mehmet;Goo, Bonguk

  • Received : 2015.10.23
  • Accepted : 2016.02.25
  • Published : 2016.02.28


The effect of propeller surface roughness condition on ship performance is very significant even the influence of fouling on propeller performance is not well established compared to biofouling on the hull surface. In present study, predictions of open water efficiency of propeller are made for three different fouling conditions, and its application is given for the 7m full-scale propeller of a medium-size tanker in open water condition. The numerical predictions of propeller efficiency loss due to fouling are based on the results from laboratory-scale drag measurements and boundary layer similarity law analysis presented in Schultz (2007) together with an in-house unsteady lifting surface code which is an appropriate tool to predict the effect of propeller surface roughness on propeller performance. The results of this study indicate that the subject propeller with the small calcareous fouling ($k_s=0.001$) can lead to as high as 15 % loss at the propeller operating condition (J=0.5) and the loss of propeller efficiency due to fouling should be evaluated while the ship is operating.


Ship performance;Biofouling;Surface roughness;Open water efficiency;Boundary layer


  1. Atlar, M., E. J. Glover, R. Mutton and C. D. Anderson(2003), Calculation of the Effects of New Generation Coatings on High Speed Propeller Performance, 2nd Intl Warship Cathodic Protection Symposium and Equipment Exhibition, Cranfield University, Shrivenham.
  2. Burrill, L. C.(1955-1956), The optimum diameter of marine propellers: A new design approach, Trans, N.E.C.I.E.S., Vol. 72, pp. 61-73.
  3. Granville, P. S.(1958), The frictional resistance and turbulent boundary layer of rough surfaces, J Ship Res, Vol. 2, pp. 52-74.
  4. Granville, P. S.(1987), Three indirect methods for the drag characterization of arbitrarily rough surfaces on flat plates, J Ship Res, Vol. 31, pp. 70-77.
  5. ICS(2015), International Chamber of Shipping, (accessed on 06/12/2015).
  6. IMO(2014), International Maritime Organization, Third IMO GHG Study, London, International Maritime Organization.
  7. Mutton, R. J., M. Atlar, M. Downie and C. D. Anderson (2005), Drag Prevention Coatings for Marine Propellers, 2nd International Symposium on Seawater Drag Reduction, Busan, Korea.
  8. Schultz, M. P.(2004), Frictional resistance of antifouling coating systems, ASME J Fluids Eng, Vol. 126, pp. 1039-1047.
  9. Schultz, M. P.(2007), Effects of coating roughness and biofouling on ship resistance and powering, Biofouling, Vol. 23, pp. 331-341.
  10. Schultz, M. P., J. A. Bendick, E. R. Holm and W. M. Hertel (2011), Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship, Biofouling, Vol. 27, pp. 87-98.
  11. Svensen, T. E. and J. S. Medhurst(1984), A simplified method for the asessment of propeller roughness penalties, Marine Technology, Vol. 21. No. 1, pp. 41-48.
  12. Townsin, R. L., D. S. Spencer, M. A. Mosaad and G. Patience (1985), Rough propeller penalties, SNAME transactions 1985, Vol. 93, pp. 165-187.
  13. Townsin, R. L.(2003), The ship hull fouling penalty, Biofouling, Vol. 19, pp. 9-15.


Supported by : TARGETS