The effect of infill walls on the seismic behavior of boundary columns in RC frames

  • Fenerci, Aksel ;
  • Binici, Baris ;
  • Ezzatfar, Pourang ;
  • Canbay, Erdem ;
  • Ozcebe, Guney
  • Received : 2014.11.02
  • Accepted : 2016.01.18
  • Published : 2016.03.25


The seismic behavior of a ${\frac{1}{2}}$ scaled, three-story three-bay RC frame with masonry infill walls was studied experimentally and numerically. Pseudo-dynamic test results showed that despite following the column design provisions of modern seismic codes and neglecting the presence of infill walls, shear induced damage is unavoidable in the boundary columns. A finite element model was validated by using the results of available one-story one-bay frame tests in the literature. Simulations of the examined test frame demonstrated that boundary columns are subjected to shear demands in excess of their shear capacity. Seismic assessment of the test frame was conducted by using ASCE/SEI 41-06 (2006) guidelines and the obtained results were compared with the damage observed during experiment. ASCE/SEI 41-06 method for the assessment of boundary columns was found unsatisfactory in estimating the observed damage. Damage estimations were improved when the strain limits were used within the plastic hinge zone instead of column full height.


pseudo-dynamic testing;masonry infill wall;finite element method;seismic assessment


  1. ACI 318-11 (2011), "Building code requirements for structural concrete", American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
  2. ASCE/SEI 41-06 (2006), "Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings", American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, USA.
  3. Bertero, V.V. and Brokken, S. (1983), "Infills in seismic resistant building", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 109(6), 1337-1361.
  4. Binici, B., Canbay, E., Ozcebe, G., Yakut, A., Aldemir, A., Demirel, I.O., Erdil, B. and Kale, O. (2012), "Observations regarding seismic and structural damage for november 9th 2011 Mw 5.6 Van-Edremit earthquake", METU-EERC Rep. No. 2012-1, Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers, Ankara, Turkey.
  5. Boljevic, B. (2015), "An assessment of the strut models for seismic analysis of infilled frames", Ph.D. Dissertation, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
  6. Canbay, E., Ersoy, U. and Tankut, T. (2004), "A three-component force transducer for RC structural testing", Eng. Struct., 26(2), 257-265.
  7. Dolsek, M. and Fajfar, P. (2002), "Mathematical modeling of an infilled RC frame structure based on the results of pseudo-dynamic tests", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 31(6), 1215-1230.
  8. DIANA (2008), "Displacement analyses user's manual", TNO DIANA, Delft, Netherlands.
  9. El-Dakhakhni, W., Elgaaly, M. and Hamid, A.A. (2003), "Three-strut model for concrete masonry-infilled steel frames", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 129(2), 177-185.
  10. Elwood, K.J., Matamoros, A.B., Wallace, J.W., Lehman, D.W., Heintz, J.A., Mitchell, A.D., Moore, M.A., Valley, M.T., Lowes, L.N., Comartin, C.D. and Moehle, J.P. (2007), "Update to ASCE/SEI 41 concrete provisions", Earthq. Spectra, 23(3), 493-523.
  11. Erdik, M. (2000), "Report on 1999 Kocaeli and Duzce (Turkey) earthquakes", Proceeding of the 3rd Intl. Workshop on Structural Control, Paris.
  12. Eurocode 8 (2004), "Design of structures for earthquake resistance-part 1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings", CEN: Brussels, Belgium.
  13. Fardis, M.N., Bousias, S.N., Franchioni, G. and Panagiotakos, T.B. (1999), "Seismic response and design of RC structures with plan-eccentric masonry infills", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 28(2), 173-191.<173::AID-EQE810>3.0.CO;2-1
  14. Favvava, J.F., Naoum M.C. and Karayannis, C.G. (2013), "Limit states of RC structures with first floor irregularities", Struct. Eng. Mech., 47(6), 791-818.
  15. Feenstra, P.H. (1993), "Computational aspects of biaxial stress in plain and reinforced concrete", Ph.D. Dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
  16. Fiorato, A.E., Sozen, M.A. and Gamble, W.L. (1970), "An investigation of the interaction of reinforced concrete frames with masonry filler walls", Civil Engineering Studies, Structural Research Series Rep. No.370, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign IL, USA.
  17. Hashemi, A. and Mosalam, K.M. (2007), "Seismic evaluation of reinforced concrete buildings including effects of masonry infill walls", PEER Technical Report 2007/100.
  18. Kakaletsis, D.J. and Karayannis, C.G. (2007), "Experimental investigation of infilled RC frames with eccentric openings", Struct. Eng. Mech., 26(3), 231-250.
  19. Kakaletsis, D.J. and Karayannis, C.G. (2009), "Experimental Investigation of infill RC frames with openings", ACI Struct. J. 106(2), 132-141.
  20. Klinger, R.E. and Bertero, V.V. (1976), "Infilled frames in earthquake-resistant construction", Report EERC/76-32. Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
  21. Kurt, E.G., Binici, B., Kurc, O., Canbay, E., Akpinar, U. and Ozcebe, G. (2011), "Seismic performance of a deficient reinforced concrete test frame with infill walls", Earthq. Spectra, 27(3), 817-834.
  22. Mainstone, R.J. (1971), "On the stiffness and strength of infilled frames", Proceeding of the Trans. Institute of Civil Engineers Suppl. IV, Institute of Civil Engineers, London, England.
  23. Marjani, F. (1997), "Behavior of brick infilled reinforced concrete frames under reversed cycling loading", Ph.D. Dissertation, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
  24. Mehrabi, A.B., Shing, P.B., Schuller, M.P. and Noland, J.L. (1994), "Performance of masonry-infilled R/C frames under in-plane lateral loads", Structural Engineering and Structural Mechanics Research Series, University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Civil Environment and Arch. Engineering, Colorado, USA.
  25. Mehrabi, A. and Shing, P. (1997), "Finite element modeling of masonry-infilled RC frames", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 123(5), 604-613.
  26. Molina, F.J., Verzeletti, G., Magonette, G., Buchet, P.H. and Geradin, M. (1999a), "Bi-directional pseudodynamic test of a full-size three-storey building", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 28(12), 1541-1566.<1541::AID-EQE880>3.0.CO;2-R
  27. Molina, F.J., Pegon, P. and Verzeletti, G. (1999b), "Time-domain identification from seismic pseudodynamic test results on civil engineering specimens", Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Identification in Engineering Systems, University of Wales, Swansea, Wales.
  28. Mosalam, K.M., White, R.N. and Ayala, G. (1998), "Response of infilled frames using pseudo-dynamic experimentation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 27(6), 589-608.<589::AID-EQE744>3.0.CO;2-K
  29. Selby, R.G. and Vecchio, F.J. (1993), "Three dimensional constitutive relations for reinforced concrete", Technical Report No. 93-02, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
  30. Stavridis, A. and Shing, P.B. (2010), "Finite-element modeling of nonlinear behavior of masonry-infilled RC frames", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 136(3), 285-296.
  31. Sucuoglu, H., Binici, B., Canbay, E., Kurc, O. and Ozcebe, G. (2013), "A study towards development of new generation performance based codes, 108G084 Tubitak Final Report, Ankara, Turkey.
  32. TEC (2007), "Turkish code for buildings in seismic zones", Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara, Turkey. (in Turkish)
  33. Turgay, T., Durmus, M.C., Binici, B. and Ozcebe, G. (2014), "Evaluation of the predictive models for stiffness, strength, and deformation capacity of RC frames with masonry infill walls", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 140(10), 06014003.
  34. Vecchio, F.J. and Collins, M.P. (1993), "Compression response of cracked reinforced concrete", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 119(12), 3590-3610.
  35. Van Noort, J.R. (2012), "Computational modeling of masonry structures", Master Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.


Supported by : TUBITAK