DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Investigation on the Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges for the Evaluation of Pipeline Safety in Extreme Cold Region

극한지 파이프라인 안정성 평가를 위한 진동현식 변형률 게이지 연구

  • Kim, Hak Joon (Daejeon University, Dept. of Construction Safety and Disaster Prevention Engineering)
  • 김학준 (대전대학교 건설안전방재공학과)
  • Received : 2016.12.12
  • Accepted : 2016.12.28
  • Published : 2016.12.30

Abstract

Vibrating wire (VW) strain gauges are widely used for the evaluation of pipeline safety in extreme cold region. The development of VW strain gauges for the low temperature environment is necessary because of the high cost of gauges sold in developed countries. Thermistors embedded in the regular VW strain gauges and PT 100 sensors embedded in the gauges specially manufactured for this study have gone through credibility tests for temperature measurements. The use of PT 100 is recommended at low temperature environments because thermistors have low credibility at temperatures below $-15^{\circ}C$. Strain measurements using regular VW strain gauges also show low accuracies as temperature goes down. VW strain gauges manufactured using inconel give high credibility of strain measurements at low temperatures. More reliable VW strain gauges for the low temperature environment will be developed in the near future.

Acknowledgement

Grant : 최저 온도하 장거리 배관 건전성 평가기술 개발

Supported by : 국토교통과학기술진흥원

References

  1. Amaral, C. S., Filho, B. G. S., Musman, J. V. R., and Gomes, M. G. F. M., 2004, Field stress monitoring in pipelines submitted to ground movement, SEM X International Congress & Exposition on Experimental & Applied Mechanics, Society for Experimental Mechanics.
  2. Borda, C., Nikles, M., Rochat, E., Grechanov, A., Naumov, A., and Velikodnev, V., 2013, Continuous real-time pipeline deformation, 3D positioning and ground movement monitoring along the Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok Pipeline, Pipeline Technology Conference, 1-15.
  3. Doblanko, R. M., Oswell, J. M., and Hanna, A. J., 2002, Rightof- way and pipeline monitoring in permafrost -The Norman Wells Pipeline experience, Proceedings of the International Pipeline conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 605-614.
  4. Geokon, 2016, Projects, Pipelines, Retrieved from http://www.geokon.com/pipelines
  5. Jang, E. G, Kim, B. J., and Kim, H. J., 2015, Evaluation of credibility of the temperature sensor embedded in the vibrating wire strain gauges using a thermohygrostat, Proceedings of the Fall Conference of the Korean Society of Engineering Geology, 151-152 (in Korean).
  6. JICA, 2004, Review of large scale northern pipeline test facilities. Final Report. Prepared for Geological Survey of Canada. Prepared by J. I. Clark & Associates. Report No. R-03- 019 v3.0, 21p.
  7. Kim, H. J. and Park, C., 2008, Investigation on the credibility of the vibrating wire strain gauges used for the tunnel instrumentation, The Journal of Engineering Geology, 18(2), 153- 158 (in Korean).
  8. Kim, H. J., 2016, Making a low temperature compression testing machine and its application plan, Proceedings of the Spring Conference of the Korean Society of Engineering Geology, 213-214 (in Korean).
  9. Minnebruggen, K. V., 2016, Experimental-numerical study on the feasibility of spirally welded pipes in a strain based design context, PhD. Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation, Ghent University, Belgium, 192p.
  10. Nazemi, N., 2009, Behavior of X60 line pipe under combined axial and transverse loads with internal pressure, MSc. Thesis, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Uni. of Windsor, 225p.
  11. Oswell, J. M., 2011, Pipelines in permafrost: geotechnical issues and lessons, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48(9), 1412-1431. https://doi.org/10.1139/t11-045
  12. Palmer, A. C. and Williams, P. J., 2003, Frost heave and pipeline upheaval buckling, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40(5), 1033-1038. https://doi.org/10.1139/t03-044
  13. Porter, M., Logue, C., Savigny, K. W., Esford, F., and Bruce, I., 2004, Estimating the influence of natural hazards on pipeline risk and system reliability, Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2587-2595.
  14. Shin, C. Y., Hwang, S. W., Jang, E. G., and Kim, H. J., 2016, Investigation of credibility of vibrating wire strain gauges using a low temperature compression testing machine, Proceedings of the Fall Conference of the Korean Society of Engineering Geology, 109-110 (in Korean).
  15. Slusarchuk, W. A., Watson, G. H., and Speer, T. L., 1973, Instrumentation around a warm oil pipeline buried in permafrost, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 10(2), 227-245. https://doi.org/10.1139/t73-021
  16. Spinelli, C. M., Demofonti, G., Fonzo, A., Lucci, A., Ferino, J., Di Biagio, M., Flaxa, V., Zimmermann, S., Kalwa, C., and Knoop, F. M., 2011, Full scale investigation on strain capacity of high grade large diameter pipes, Steel Pipes, Special Edition 3R, 14-26.
  17. Tong, A., 2001, Improving the accuracy of temperature measurements, Sensor Review, 21(3), 193-198. https://doi.org/10.1108/02602280110398044
  18. Weir-Jones, I., 2012, Vancouver firm's monitoring technology reduces risks, decreases operating costs for pipelines & utilities, Pipelines Today, 6(2), 22-26.
  19. Wilkie, S. A., Doblanko, R. M., and Fladager, S. J., 2001, Northern Canadian pipeline deals with effects of soil movement, Oil & Gas Journal, 99(20), 62-66.
  20. Zhang, L., 2015, Numerical simulations of full scale tests investigation effect of fault movement on buried pipeline, MSc. Project, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, 142p.