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Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

Han, Jae-Yeong;Park, Chan-Hwan;Seo, Eun-Yeong;Kim, Jung-Kyu;Hammond, John;Lim, Hyoun-Sub

  • Received : 2015.12.01
  • Accepted : 2016.03.02
  • Published : 2016.03.31

Abstract

Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) have been known to induce top working disease causing economical damage in apple. Occurrences of these three viruses in pome fruit trees, including apple, have been reported around the world. The transmission of the three viruses was reported by grafting, and there was no report of transmission through mechanical contact, insect vector, or seed except some herbaceous hosts of ASGV. As RNA extraction methods for fruit trees, Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and multiplex RT-PCR techniques have been improved for reliability and stability, and low titer viruses that could not be detected in the past have become detectable. We studied the seed transmission ability of three apple viruses through apple seedling diagnosis using RT-PCR. Nineteen seeds obtained from commercially grown apple were germinated and two of the resulting plants were ASGV positive. Seven clones of the amplified ASGV coat protein (CP) genes of these isolates were sequenced. Overall sequence identities were 99.84% (nucleotide) and 99.76% (amino acid). Presence of a previously unreported single nucleotide and amino acid variation conserved in all of these clones suggests a possible association with seed transmission of these 'S' isolates. A phylogenetic tree constructed using ASGV CP nucleotide sequences showed that isolate S sequences were grouped with Korean, Chinese, Indian isolates from apple and Indian isolates from kiwi.

Keywords

apple stem grooving virus;seed transmission;RT-PCR

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Chungnam National University