Numerical Investigation of the Impact Pressure Acting on Arbitrary Ship Sections Falling into the Water Surface

임의 선박 단면형상의 입수충격력에 관한 수치적 연구

  • Received : 2015.03.19
  • Accepted : 2016.01.19
  • Published : 2016.02.20


The interaction between the hull of ship and free surface of water generates important loads during slamming motion. In the present study, the slamming load applied on the sectional surface of two-dimensional arbitrary bodies has been investigated under several falling velocities. This simulation has been done with the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT®. Through the conventional MARINTEK experiments for the benchmark of the simulation, we verified the impact pressure values between the experiments and simulation results. Two arbitrary ship bow section models, Panamax-like(with small convex bulb and flare) and Post panamax-like(with large convex bulb and flare) are also investigated. Simulation results show that a maximum impact pressure on the Post panama-like shape is higher than the Panamax-like shape. According to both a lump of water generated by arbitrary shape and various dead-rise angles of the shape, the pressure picks were enhanced in the simulation.


Slamming;Arbitrary shape;Panamax-like;Post panamax-like


  1. Fairlie-Clarke, A.C. & Tveitnes, T., 2008. Momentum and Gravity Effects during the Constant Velocity Water Entry of Wedge-Sections. Ocean Engineering, 35, pp.706-716.
  2. Greenhow, M. & Lin, W.M., 1985. Numerical simulation of non-linear free surface flows generated by wedge entry and wave maker motions. In Proceedings 4th Internatioal Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, Washington, DC, 24–27 September 1985
  3. Kapsenberg, G.K., 2011. Slamming of Ships Review, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 2011(369), pp.2892–2919.
  4. Lee, B.H. Park, J.C. Jung, S.J. Ryu, M.C. & Kim, Y.S., 2008. Numerical Simulation for Fluid Impact Loads by Flat Plate with Incident Angles. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 45(1), pp. 1-9.
  5. ANSYS Fluent, 2015. ANSYS Fluent UDF Manual. [Online] (Updated February 2015), Avaliable at: FLUENT/ fludf.pdf
  6. Yum, D.J & Yoon, B.S., 2008. Numerical Simulation of Slamming Phenomena for 2-d Wedges. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 45(5), pp.477-486.
  7. Zhao, R. & Faltinsen, O.M., 1993. Water Entry of Two Dimensional Bodies. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 246, pp.593–612.
  8. Zhao, R. Faltinsen, O.M. & Aarnes, J., 1996. Water entry of arbitrary two-dimensional sections with and without flow separation. Proceedings of 21st Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Trondheim, Norway, pp.408-423.
  9. Von Karman, T., 1929. The impact on sea plane floats during landing, technical report, NACA TN 321.
  10. Wagner, H., 1932. UberStoss-und Gleitvorgange and der Oberflache von Flussigkeiten. Zeitschr. F. AngewandteMathematik und Mechanik(ZAMM), 12(4), pp.192-235.
  11. ANSYS Fluent, 2015. ANSYS Fluent User's Guide. [Online] (Updated February 2015), Avaliable at: flu_ug.html.
  12. Muzaferija, S. Peric, M. Sames, P.C. & Schellin, T.E., 2000. A two-fluid Navier-Stokes solver to simulate water entry. Proceedings of 22nd Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, pp.638-651.
  13. Matsunami, R., 2004. Research on flare slamming of a large container ship. NK Class research report,
  14. Ochi, M.K. & Motter, L.E., 1973. Prediction of Slamming Characteristics and Hull Responses for Ship Design. Transaction of SNAME, 81, pp.144–176.
  15. Phi, T.H. & Ahn, H.T., 2011. Air Compressiblity Effect in CFD-based Water Impact Analysis. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 48(6), pp.581-591.