운동과 뇌신경가소성: 고강도 인터벌 운동의 효과성 고찰

Hwang, Ji Sun;Kim, Tae Young;Hwang, Moon-Hyon;Lee, Won Jun

  • 투고 : 2015.05.15
  • 심사 : 2015.06.24
  • 발행 : 2016.01.30


운동은 중추와 말초의 각종 성장인자(BDNF, IGF-1, VEGF)들의 상호작용에 의해 뇌신경가소성을 증진시키고 인지기능을 향상시킨다. 지금까지 저·중강도 지속성 유산소 운동의 효과를 검증하는 선행연구가 주로 이루어졌기 때문에 고강도 운동에 따른 뇌신경성장인자의 발현 및 인지기능 개선 효과에 대한 연구는 미흡한 실정이다. 하지만 최근의 과학적 증거들은 고강도 인터벌 운동이 시간 효율성, 안전성, 심폐지구력 개선 및 체중 감소에 효과적임을 암시하고 있으며, 미스포츠의학회(ACSM)에서 권장하는 일반인을 위한 운동지침에서도 무리가 되지 않는 수준에서 고강도 인터벌 운동 수행을 강조하고 있다. 특히 최근에 발표된 선행 연구에서 고강도 인터벌 운동은 말초조직과 뇌에서의 BDNF, IGF-1, VEGF의 발현을 증가시키고 그로 인한 인지기능 발달에 기여한다는 것을 보고하였으며, 관련된 유력한 생리학적 기전으로 고강도 인터벌 운동으로 인한 뇌의 저산소화와 뇌신경대사의 부가적인 에너지원이 될 수 있는 젖산 이용성 증가가 대두되고 있다. 따라서 향후 저산소화 및 젖산 이용성 증가에 따른 뇌신경성장인자 발현 개선에 어떤 분자생물학적 기전이 관여하는지를 탐구할 필요가 있으며, 또한 동일한 운동량을 가진 저·중강도 지속성 유산소 운동과의 비교 연구를 통해 뇌신경성장인자의 발현 및 인지기능 개선에 있어 고강도 인터벌 운동의 우수성을 입증하는 연구가 요구된다.


Cognitive function;high-intensity interval exercise;hypoxia;lactate;neurotrofic factors


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