Preparation of Cellulose Acetate Produced from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Jo, Jong-Soo;Jung, Ji Young;Byun, Ji-Hye;Lim, Bu-Kug;Yang, Jae-Kyung

  • Received : 2015.12.07
  • Accepted : 2016.03.12
  • Published : 2016.03.25


Cellulose acetate is one of well-known industrial materials which have various commercial uses. We treated the lignocellulosic biomass using two-step (steam explosion-chemical) reaction followed by acetylation to get the cellulose acetate in this study. The two-step treatment was done to improve the yields of acetylation of the substrates. The yields of the cellulose acetate were about 88.4, 88.1, and 151.7% in barley straw, rice straw, and oak tree, respectively. Also the degree of substitution (DS) of the acetates was 2.1 to 2.5 in the biomass. We found that the biomass were valuable cellulosic sources, including their derivatives, in this study. This means that the biomass can be converted into the high-valued cellulosic stuff.


cellulose acetate;lignocellulosic biomass;steam explosion;two-stage treatment;acetylation


  1. Adebajo, M.O., Frost, R.L. 2004. Infrared and 13C MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of acetylation of cotton. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 60: 449.
  2. Ahmed, A., Adnot, A., Kaliagnine, S. 1987. ESCA study of the solid residues of supercritical extraction of Populus tremuloïdes in methanol. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 34 (1): 359-375.
  3. Amin, M.N., Shahjehan, M.D. 1999. Production of cellulose acetate from jute sticks. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 42: 377-379.
  4. Ballesteros, M., Negro, Oliva, J.M., Cabanas, A., Manzanares, P., Ballesteros, M. 2006. Ethanol production from steam explosion pretreated wheat straw. Applied Biochemical Biotechnology 130: 278-288.
  5. Biswas, A., Shah, B.C., Lawton, J.W., Willett, J.L. 2006. Process for obtaining cellulose acetates from agricultural by-products. Carbohydrate Polymers, 64: 134-137.
  6. Cao, Y.,Wu, J., Meng, T., Zhang, J., He, J., Lia, H., Zhanga, Y. 2007. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetates prepared by one-step homogeneous acetylation of cornhusk cellulose in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl). Carbohydrate Polymers 69(4): 665-672.
  7. Chen, W.H., Pen, B.L., Yu, C.T., Hwang, W.S. 2011. Pretreatment efficiency and structural characterization of rice straw by an integrated process of dilute-acid and steam explosion for bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology 102: 2916-2924.
  8. Colom, X., Carrillo, F., Nogues, F., Garriga, P. 2003. Structural analysis of photodegraded wood by means of FTIR spectroscopy. Polymer degradation and Stability 80: 543-549.
  9. Cristobal, C., Encarnacion, R., Ignacio, B., Maria, J.N., Eulogio, C., 2006. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree wood by steam explosion and alkaline peroxide delignification. Process Biochemistry 41: 423-429.
  10. Edgar, K.J., Buchanan, C.M., Debenham, J.S., Rundquist, P.A., Seiler, B.D., Shelton, M.C., Tindall, D. 2001. Advances in cellulose ester performance and application. Progress in polymer science 26(9): 1605-1688.
  11. Fan. G., Wang, M., Liao, C., Fang T, Li, J., Zhou, R. 2013. Isolation of cellulose from rice straw and its conversion into cellulose acetate catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid. Carbohydrate Polymers 94(1): 71-76.
  12. Fernandez-Bolanos, J., Felizon, B., Heredia, A., Rodriguez, R., Guillen, R., Jimenez, A. 2001. Steam explosion of olive stones: hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Bioresource Technology 79: 53-61.
  13. Filho, G.R., Monteiro, D.S., Meireles, C.S., de Assuncao, R.M.N., Cerqueira, D.A., Barud, H.S. 2008. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate produced from recycled newspaper. Carbohydrate polymers, 73: 74-82.
  14. Hamed, O.A., Jodeh, S., Al-Hajj, N., Hamed, E.M., Abo-Obeid, A., Fouad, Y. 2015. Cellulose acetate from biomass waste of olive industry. Journal of Wood Science 61: 45-52.
  15. He, J., Cui, S., Wang, S. 2007. Preparation and crystalline analysis of high-grade bamboo dissolving pulp for cellulose acetate. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 107(2): 1029-1038.
  16. Heinzea, T., Liebert, T. 2001. Unconventional methods in cellulose functionalization. Progress in Polymer Science 26(9): 1689-1762.
  17. Hess, J.R, Wright, C.T., Kenney, K.L. 2007. Cellulosic biomass feedstocks and logistics for ethanol production. Biofuels, Bioproducts and biorefining 1(3): 181-190.
  18. Hummel, A. 2004. Acetate manufacturing, process and technology 3.1 industrial processes. Macromolecular Symposia 208: 49-60.
  19. Kumar, R., Mago, G., Balan, V., Wyman, C.E. 2009. Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies. Bioresource Technology 100: 3948-3962.
  20. Li, B.Z., Balan, V., Yuan, Y.J., Dale, B.E. 2010. Process optimization to convert forage and sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol basedon ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment. Bioresource Technology 101: 1285-1292.
  21. Majewicz, T.G., Padlas, T.T. 1979. Cellulose acetate and triacetate fiber. In: Grayson M, Eckroth D (eds) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp. 89-117.
  22. Schaller, J., Meister, F., Schulze, T. Krieg, M. 2013. Novel absorbing fibres based on cellulose acetate. Lenzinger Berichte 91: 77-83.
  23. Shaikh, H.M., Pandare, K.V., Nair, G., Varma, A.J. 2009. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse cellulose for producing cellulose acetates: Novel use of residual hemicellulose as plasticizer. Carbohydrate Polymers 76(1): 23-29.
  24. Ueda, T., Onozawa, S., Akiyama, M., Sakuta, M. 1988. The influence of growth temperature and thermal annealing on the stress in GaAs layers grown on Si substrates. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 27(10): 1815-1818.
  25. Van de Vyver, S., Geboers, J., Jacobs, P.A., Sels, B.F. 2011. Recent advances in the catalytic conversion of cellulose. ChemCatChem 3: 82-94.
  26. Voiges, K., Adden, R., Rinken, M., Mischnick, P. 2012. Critical reinvestigation of the alditol acetate method for analysis of substituent distribution in methyl cellulose. Cellulose 19: 993-1004.
  27. Vu, T.H.M., Pakkanen, H., Alen, R. 2004. Delignification of bamboo (Bambusa procera acher)-Part 1. Kraft pulping and the subsequent oxygen delignification to pulp with a low kappa number. Industrial Crops and Products 19: 49-57.


Supported by : Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology