Pox viral infection in a rufous turtle dove

  • Bak, Eun-Jung ;
  • Woo, Gye-Hyeong
  • Received : 2016.01.06
  • Accepted : 2016.02.01
  • Published : 2016.03.31


A dead dove was found on the road and submitted for diagnosis. The bird was severely emaciated, with deformation in its facial area. Grossly, white coalescing nodules were seen on the cut surface of the nasal cavity. Histopathologically, epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract were markedly proliferated, with ballooning degeneration, down growth of the rete ridge, and large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and focal necrotic focus was present in the proliferative area. The facial bones showed partial bone resorption. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous viral particles in epithelial cells with dumbbell-shaped bodies, consistent with poxvirus.


dove;electron microscopy;intracytoplasmic inclusion body;poxvirus


  1. Akey BL, Nayar JK, Forrester DJ. Avian pox in Florida wild turkeys: Culex nigripalpus and Wyeomyia vanduzeei as experimental vectors. J Wildl Dis 1981, 17, 597-599.
  2. Boulanger D, Smith T, Skinner MA. Morphogenesis and release of fowlpox virus. J Gen Virol 2000, 81, 675-687.
  3. Davidson WR, Kellogg FE, Doster GL. An epornitic of avian pox in wild bobwhite quail. J Wildl Dis 1980, 16, 293-298.
  4. Docherty DE, Long RI. Isolation of a poxvirus from a house finch, Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller). J Wildl Dis 1986, 22, 420-422.
  5. Pennycott TW. Scaly leg, papillomas and pox in wild birds. Vet Rec 2003, 152, 444.
  6. van Riper C, Forrester DJ. Avian pox. In: Thomas NJ, Hunter DB, Atkinson CT (eds.). Infectious Diseases of Wild Birds. pp. 131-176, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2007.
  7. Sileo L, Sievert PR, Samuel MD. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll. J Wildl Dis 1990, 26, 329-338.
  8. Smits JE, Tella JL, Carrete M, Serrano D, Lopez G. An epizootic of avian pox in endemic short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) in the Canary Islands, Spain. Vet Pathol 2005, 42, 59-65.
  9. Tripathy DN, Reed WM. Pox. In: Swayne DE, Glisson JR, McDougald LR, Nolan LK, Suarez DL, Nair VL (eds.). Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. pp. 333-350, Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, 2013.