Characteristics of the Korean speakers' voice under easy Korean, difficult Korean and English reading situations

한국인의 쉬운 한국어, 어려운 한국어, 영어 읽기 상황에서의 음성 특성

  • Received : 2016.01.13
  • Accepted : 2016.02.22
  • Published : 2016.03.31


The purpose of this study is to know the acoustic characteristics of voice under stressful and relaxed conditions. Ten undergraduate male students participated in this study and produced 아, 에, 이 vowels in English reading, difficult Korean reading under stressful conditions, and easy Korean reading under relaxed conditions. After that, F0, jitter, shimmer, NHR, F1, F2, and F3 values were measured and analyzed. The results of this study demonstrate that speech parameters related to stress are jitter, shimmer, and NHR in that these values are lower under relaxed situations (easy Korean reading) than that of stressful situations (English and difficult Korean reading). This study will be a foundation to verify that the analysis of acoustic characteristics can serve as a quantitative tool for measuring stress levels.


Acoustic characteristics of voice;F0;jitter;shimmer;NHR;formant;stressful condition


  1. 두산백과. 올림픽 경기 대회. Retrieved from on September 1, 2015.
  2. Choi, Y. O. & Kim, J. S. (2014). Development of a Stress Scale for Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 44(6), 630-638. (최연옥.김정선 (2014). 노인 관상동맥질환자의 스트레스 측정도구 개발. 한국간호과학회, 44(6), 630-638.)
  3. Dromey, C., Warrick, P., & Irish, J. (2002). The Influence of pitch and loudness changes on the acoustics of vocal tremor. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 870-890.
  4. Han, D. S., Jung, N. R., Kim, D. W., Kim, Y. E., & Lee, C. H. (2007). Analysis of Stress Level of Korean by Heart Rate Variability Measurement. The Korean Journal of Stress Research, 15(3), 163-169. (한대석.정나라.김동우.김영언.이창호 (2007). 심박변이도 측정에 의한 한국인의 스트레스 상태분석. 스트레스硏究, 15(3), 163-169.)
  5. Karlesson, I., Banzinger, T., Dankovicova, J., Johnstone, T., Lindberg, J., Melin, H., Nolan, F., & Scherer, K. (1998). Within-speaker variability due to manners. Proceedings of ICSLP, Sydney, Australia.
  6. Kim, J. (2011). A study on the correlation between English word-final stop and vowel duration produced by speakers of Korean. Phonetics and Speech Sciences, 3(1), 15-22. (김지은 (2011). 한국인 영어 학습자의 어말 폐쇄음과 선행 모음 길이의 상관관계 연구. 말소리와 음성과학, 3(1), 15-22.)
  7. Kunzel, H. J. (1997). Some general phonetic and forensic aspects of speaking tempo. Forensic Linguistics, 4(1), 48-83.
  8. Kwon, C. H., Song, S. K., Kim, J. Y., Kim, K. H., & Jang, J. S. (2012). Extraction of Speech Features for Emotion Recognition. Phonetics and Speech Sciences, 4(2), 73-78. (권철홍.송승규.김종열.김근호.장준수 (2012). 감정 인식을 위한 음성 특징 도출. 말소리와 음성과학, 4(2), 73-78.)
  9. Murray, I., Baber, C., & South, A. (1996). Towards a definition and working model of stress and its effects on speech. Speech Communication, 20(1), 3-12.
  10. Pittam, J. & Scherer, K. R. (1993). Vocal expression and communication of emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 185-197). New York: The Guilford Press.
  11. Scherer, K. R. (1986). Vocal affect expression: A review and a model for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 143-165.
  12. Wikipedia. Olympic Games. Retrieved from on September 1, 2015.
  13. Yang, H. K., Lee, J. W., Lee, Y. J., Kim, K. S., Lee, K. H., & Choi, H. J. (2009). HRV Evaluation under Stress Condition by Using Patch Type Bipolar Heart Activity Monitoring System. Korean Journal of the Science of Emotion and Sensibility,12(2), 161-168. (양희경.이정환.이영재.김경섭.이강휘.최희정 (2009). 패치형 바이폴라 심장활동 모니터링 시스템을 이용한 스트레스 상태의 HRV 평가. 한국감성과학회지, 12(2), 161-168.)