DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Spatial and seasonal variations of organic carbon level in four major rivers in Korea

Lee, Jaewoong;Shin, Kisik;Park, Changhee;Lee, Seunghyun;Jin, Dal Rae;Kim, Yongseok;Yu, Soonju

  • Received : 2015.08.06
  • Accepted : 2015.12.28
  • Published : 2016.03.31

Abstract

Regionally the lowest average concentration of TOC was observed with 0.66 mg/L in Nakdong river, while the highest concentration of TOC was observed with 0.91 mg/L in Yeongsan river. The average concentration of TOC for national water quality monitoring site showed that the lowest average concentration of TOC was 1.58 mg/L in Han river, while the highest concentration of TOC was 3.37 mg/L in Yeongsan river. Seasonally, the average concentration of TOC at six upstream sites showed 0.77 mg/L and 0.56 mg/L, 0.69 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, 0.80 mg/L and 0.73 mg/L, and 1.21 mg/L and 0.68 mg/L between wet season and dry season in Han river, Nakdong river, Gem river and Yeongsan river, respectively. For the national water quality site, the average concentration of TOC between wet season and dry season was 1.70 mg/L and 1.45 mg/L in Han river, 2.01 mg/L and 1.75 mg/L in Nakdong river, 2.01 mg/L and 1.60 mg/L in Gem river, and 3.75 mg/L and 3.00 mg/L in Yeongsan river. The distribution of TOC in upstream and national water quality monitoring sites on four major rivers have been influenced by seasonal and regional characteristics in Korea.

Keywords

Four major rivers;National water quality monitoring sites;TOC;Upstream sites

References

  1. Ni HG, Lu FH, Luo XL, Tian HY, Zeng EY. Riverine inputs of total organic carbon and suspended particulate matter from the Pearl River Delta to the coastal ocean off South China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2008;56:1150-1157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.02.030
  2. Meybeck M. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport by world rivers. Am. J. Sci. 1982;282:401-450. https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.282.4.401
  3. Schlesinger WH, Melack JM. Transport of organic carbon in the world's rivers. Tellus. 1981;33:172-187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2153-3490.1981.tb01742.x
  4. Dubber D, Gray NF. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste. J. Environ. Sci. Health A. 2010;45:1595-1600. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2010.506116
  5. Bourgeois W, Burgess JE, Stuetz RM. On-line monitoring of wastewater quality: a review. J. Chem. Technol. Biot. 2001;76:337-348. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.393
  6. Aziz J, Tebbutt T. Significance of COD, BOD and TOC correlations in kinetic models of biological oxidation. Water Res. 1980;14:319-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90077-9
  7. Constable TW, McBean ER. BOD/TOC correlations and their application to water quality evaluation. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 1979;11:363-375. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00296593
  8. Reynolds DM. The differentiation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter in wastewaters using fluorescence spectroscopy. J. Chem. Technol. Biot. 2002;77:965-972. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.664
  9. Waziri M, Ogugbuaja V. Interrelationships between physicochemical water pollution indicators: A case study of River Yobe-Nigeria. Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2010;1:76-80.
  10. Metcalf E. Inc., Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003.
  11. Gao W, Shao Y. Freeze concentration for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in water. Desalination 2009;249:398-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.12.065
  12. Lal R. Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environ. Int. 2003;29:437-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00192-7
  13. Laudon H, Kohler S, Buffam I. Seasonal TOC export from seven boreal catchments in northern Sweden. Aquat. Sci. 2004;66:223-230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-004-0700-2
  14. Environment Mo. Water pollution standard methods [Internet]. Available from: http://www.law.go.kr/DRF/lawService.do?OC=jaa806&target=admrul&ID=2100000020361&type=HTML&mobileYn=.
  15. Novotny V. Water quality: Diffuse pollution and watershed management. John Wiley & Sons; 2003.
  16. Han AW, Hong SH, Hwang SH, Kim DH, Lee JB, Lee YJ. A Study on Water Quality Changes of Geum River Subwatersheds: In Cases of Tributary. Korean J. Environ. Agric. 2012;31:328-343. https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2012.31.4.328
  17. Chang H. Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Res. 2008;42:3285-3304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.04.006
  18. Park S, Oh C, Jeon S, Jung H, Choi C. Soil erosion risk in Korean watersheds, assessed using the revised universal soil loss equation. J. Hydrol. 2011;399:263-273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.01.004
  19. Han M. Progress of multipurpose and proactive rainwater management in Korea. Env. Eng. Res. 2013;18:65-69. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.065
  20. Smith RA, Alexander RB, Schwarz GE. Natural background concentrations of nutrients in streams and rivers of the conterminous United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003;37:3039-3047. https://doi.org/10.1021/es020663b
  21. Shih JS, Alexander RB, Smith RA, Boyer EW, Shwarz GE, Chung S. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States 2010. Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey; 2010.
  22. Gwaski PA, Hati SS, Ndahi NP, Ogugbuaja VO. Modelling parameters of oxygen demand in the aquatic environment of lake had for depletion estimation. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology. 2013;3:116-123.
  23. Young-Il K, Sang-Jin Y. Problems and improvement schemes of TMDL implementation -considerations on establishment of TMDL plans. J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng. 2011;33:385-389. https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2011.33.6.385

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Institute of Environmental