DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Phoria Changes Caused by Lens Adaptation after Wearing of Horizontal Prism Lens and Spherical Lens

수평 프리즘렌즈와 구면렌즈 착용 후 렌즈적응에 의한 사위도의 변화

  • Received : 2016.02.03
  • Accepted : 2016.03.18
  • Published : 2016.03.31

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate an individual phoria compensating effect by measuring the lens adaptation after wearing horizontal prism or spherical lenses at near. Methods: 103 subjects (63 males and 40 females) aged $22.43{\pm}2.07years$ participated for this study. Refractive errors of subjects were fully corrected, and subjects were classified into three groups; esophoria, orthophoria and exophoria. The adaptation test of prism and spherical lenses was performed immediately, 15 minutes and 30 minutes after wearing lenses with $OU\;2\;{\Delta}\;BO$ and S+1.00 D for an esophoria group and $OU\;2\;{\Delta}\;BI$ and S-1.00 D for orthophoria and exophoria groups, respectively. Each measured phoria was compared to phoria measured with fully corrected condition, and the phoria changing effects about both lenses was analyzed. Results: The mean of phoria by prism lenses significantly decreased for every group. The mean of phoria by spherical lenses also significantly decreased in orthophoria and exophoria groups. The esophoria group showed a decreasing tendency but has no significance. The decreased phoria value by prism lens was classified into three steps; 90~100%, 0~10% and 50% or more. According to results of individual distribution ratio, it was 5, 64 and 24 subjects at 30 minutes after wearing lenses, respectively. The decreased phoria value by spherical lens was classified into three steps; 90~100%, 0~10% and 50% or more. According to results of individual distribution ratio, it was 37, 53 and 41 subjects at 30 minutes after wearing lenses, respectively. The subjects having no phoria changed by both prism and spherical lenses were 37.9%. Conclusions: When prescribing to compensate the near horizontal phoria using prism or spherical lens, the pretest for lens adaptation should be taken before prescription.

Keywords

Phoria;Decreased phoria value;Prism adaptation;Spherical lens adaptation;Adaptation pretest

References

  1. Schubert G. Grundlagen der beidugigen motorischen koordination. Pflugers Arch. 1943;247(2):279-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01763984
  2. Carter DB. Effects of prolonged wearing of prism. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1963;40:265-273. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-196305000-00003
  3. McCormack GL. Vergence adaptation maintains heterophoria in normal binocular vision. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1985;62(8):555-561. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-198508000-00009
  4. Eskridge JB. Adaptation to vertical prism. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988;65(5):371-376. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-198805000-00011
  5. Sethi B, North RV. Vergence adaptive changes with varying magnitudes of prism-induced disparities and fusional amplitudes. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987;64(4):263-268. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-198704000-00006
  6. North R, Henson DB. Adaptation to prism-induced heterophoria in subjects with abnormal binocular vision or asthenopia. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1981;58(9):746-752. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-198109000-00009
  7. Maddox EE. The clinical use of prisms; and the decentering of lenses, 2nd Ed. Bristol: J Wright, 1893;116-137.
  8. North R, Henson DB. Adaptation to lens-induced heterophorias. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1985;62(11):774-780. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-198511000-00009
  9. Mitchell S, Bruce W. Clinical management of binocular vision, 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002;73-81.
  10. Rainey BB, Schroeder TL, Goss DA, Grosvenor TP. Inter-examiner repeatability of heterophoria tests. Optom Vis Sci. 1998;75(10):719-726. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-199810000-00016
  11. Morgan MW. The clinical aspects of accommodation and convergence. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1944; 21:301-313. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-194408000-00001
  12. Hwang MS. Study on the effects of spherical lens and prism on phoria's adaptation to prism. MS Thesis. Chonnam National University, Gwangju. 2013;8.
  13. Grosvenor T. Primary care optometry, 5th Ed. Philadelphia: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007;224-231.
  14. Carter DB. Fixation disparity and heterophoria following prolonged wearing of prisms. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1965;42:141-152. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-196503000-00001
  15. Schor CM. The influence of rapid prism adaptation upon fixation disparity. Vision Res. 1979;19(7):757-765. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(79)90151-2
  16. Schor CM. The relationship between fusional vergence eye movements and fixation disparity. Vision Res. 1979;19(12): 1359-1367. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(79)90208-6
  17. Alpern M. The zone of clear single vision at the upper levels of accommodation and convergence. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1950;27(10):491-513. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-195010000-00003
  18. Kwon MJ, Jeon IC, Byun JW, Mah KC. The analysis of prism adaptation by prism-induced deviation changes. Korean J Vis Sci. 2009;11(4):293-306.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 강원대학교