The Effects of passive stretching exercise of the scalene muscles on forced vital capacity

사각근에 대한 수동신장운동이 노력성폐활량에 미치는 영향

Byun, Sung-Hak;Han, Dong-Wook

  • Received : 2015.10.18
  • Accepted : 2015.11.02
  • Published : 2016.02.29


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of passive stretching exercises of the scalene muscles known as respiratory accessory muscles, on forced vital capacity. METHODS: Ten of the participants were randomly selected as an experiment group to perform passive stretching exercises on the scalene muscles. Ten additional students were selected randomly as a control group. The forced vital capacity was assessed by using a digital spirometer (Pony FX, COSMED Inc, Italy) both before and after the passive stretching exercises were performed. Subsequently, passive stretching exercises of the scalene muscles were performed in the experimental group. There were no interventions to the control group. RESULTS: As for the forced vital capacity (FVC), the experiment group showed significant increase in items of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second ($FEV_1$), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity ($FEV_1/VC$), and maximal expiratory flow 75%(MEF 75%) after the scalenemuscles passive stretching exercises were performed. The control group, however, showed no change. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that passive stretching exercises of the scalene muscles could be helpful for forced vital capacity improvement.


Passive stretching exercise;Scalene muscles;Forced vital capacity


  1. Cahalin LP, Braga M, Matsuo Y, et al. Efficacy of diaphragmatic breathing in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2002;22(1):7-21.
  2. Cameron MH, Monroe LG. Physical Rehabilitation:Evidence-Based Examination, Evaluation, and Intervention. Philadelphia. SAUNDERS. 2007.
  3. Casciari R, Fairshter RD, Harrison A. Effects of breathing retraining in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest. 1981;79:393-98.
  4. Choe, JR. Back and chest pain related to scalenus medius muscle. The Korean journal of pain. 1992:5(1):63-8.
  5. Choi SJ, A Study on the Effects of the Breath Efficiency & Lung Capacity Improvement Using Recorder Playing Focused on Breath Training. Journal of music and human behavior. 2007;4(1):31-46.
  6. Galley PM, Forster AL. Human movement. New York. Churchill Living Stone. 1982.
  7. Gosselink AT, Blanksma PK, Crijns HJ, et al. Left ventricular beat-to-beat performance in atrial fibrillation:contribution of Frank-Starling mechanism after short rather than long RR intervals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26(6):1516-21.
  8. Hong JG. The effects of the application of an elastic tape to inspiratory muscles on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. Korea University, Master's Thesis. 2011.
  9. Jeong DK. The effects of breathing exercise types on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle activity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sehan University, Dissertation of Doctorate Degree. 2015.
  10. Jo MR, Kim NS. Jung JH. The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Cough Capacity in Stroke Patients. J Korean Soc Phys Med. 2014;9:399-405.
  11. Jung WG. The effect of rope-skipping on the health-related physical fitness and pulmonary function in children. Pusan National University of Education, Master's Thesis. 2003.
  12. Kang JH, Lee KJ, Park YH, et al. The study on misalignment of cervical spine of patient with scalenus syndrome. J Oriental Rehab Med, 2006;16(4):115-23.
  13. Kim JS, Shin WS. The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Strengthening Training on Pulmonary Function and Gait Ability in Subacute Stroke Patients. J Korean Soc Phys Med. 2013;8:489-96.
  14. Kim KS, Byun MK, Lee WH, et al. Effects of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on muscle activity in inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2012;7(1):9.
  15. Kim MH. The Effects of Respiratory Function, Trunk control and Functional ADL following Respiratory Strength Training in Patients With Stroke. Sahmyook University, Master's Thesis. 2012.
  16. Kim SY. Comparison of six tests for assessing hamstring muscle length. The journal of Korean academy of orthopaedic manual physical therapy. 1999;5(1):39-51.
  17. Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques(6th ed). FA Davis. 2012.
  18. Lee GW, Kwon YH, Jeong JH, et al. The efficacy of scalene injection in thoracic outlet syndrome. Journal of Korean neurosurgical society. 2011;50(1):36-9.
  19. Lee JH. Usefulness of Electronic Pressure Algometer in Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold in Normal Korean Adult. Gyeongsang National University, Master's Thesis. 2009.
  20. Lee KY. A studyon the development of the children through the stretching of the flexibility and the power. Kongju National University, Master's Thesis. 2000.
  21. Legrand A, Schneider E, Gevenois PA, et al. Respiratory effects of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94: 1467-72.
  22. McConnell A. Breathe strong, perform better. Human Kinetics. 2011
  23. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, et al. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(2):319-38.
  24. Nam JH. The effects of 16 weeks of static stretching exercise on the balance and gait ability in elderly women. Hannam University, Master's Thesis. 2008.
  25. Neder JA, Andreoni S, Lerario MC, et al. Reference values for lung function tests. II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999;32(6):719-27.
  26. Park MC, Jeong JH. Changes in PCF, MIP and MEP related to measurement position and thorax mobility in patient with respiratory difficulty, Journal of Special Education & Rehabilitation Science. 2010;49(3):75-89.
  27. Reardon J, Awad E, Normandin E, et al. The effect of comprehensive outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation on dyspnea. Chest. 1994;105(4):1046-52.
  28. Romanes GJ. Cunningham's Textbook of anatomy(12th ed.). London. Oxford University Press. 1981.
  29. Seo KC. The effect of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle activity in the stroke patients after complex breathing. Daegu University. Dissertation of Doctorate Degree. 2012.
  30. Seo KC, Jo MS. The Effects of Feedback Respiratory Exercise on Gait Ability in Patients with Stroke. J Korean Soc Phys Med. 2013;8:559-66.