DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of pH on Rheological Properties of Dysphagia-Oriented Thickened Water

  • Yoon, Seung-No ;
  • Yoo, Byoungseung
  • Received : 2015.10.07
  • Accepted : 2016.01.04
  • Published : 2016.03.31

Abstract

Flow and dynamic rheological properties of thickened waters prepared with commercial food thickeners were investigated at different pH levels (3, 4, 5, 6, and 7). The commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener (thickener A) and starch-based thickener (thickener B), which have been commonly used in a domestic hospital and nursing home for patients with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) in Korea, were selected in this study. Thickened samples with both thickeners at different pH levels showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.08~0.22). Thickened samples at pH 3 showed higher n values and lower consistency index (K) values when compared to those at other pH levels. The K values of thickener A increased with an increase in pH level, while the n values decreased, showing that the flow properties greatly depended on pH. There were no noticeable changes in the K values of thickener B between pH 4 and 7. At pH 3, the thickened water with thickener A showed a higher storage modulus (G') value, while that with thickener B showed a lower G'. These rheological parameters exhibited differences in rheological behaviors between XG-based and starch-based thickeners, indicating that the rheological properties of thickened waters appear to be greatly influenced by the acidic condition and the type of food thickener. Appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener seems to be greatly important for the preparation of thickened acidic fluids with desirable rheological properties for safe swallowing.

Keywords

food thickener;pH;thickened water;swallowing difficulty;rheological property

References

  1. Cho HM, Yoo B. 2015. Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for dysphagia diets. J Acad Nutr Diet 115: 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.08.028
  2. Smith CH, Jebson EM, Hanson B. 2014. Thickened fluids: investigation of users' experiences and perceptions. Clin Nutr 33: 171-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2013.10.012
  3. Mills RH. 2008. Dysphagia management: using thickened liquids. The ASHA Leader 13: 12-13.
  4. Glassburn DL, Deem JF. 1998. Thickener viscosity in dysphagia management: variability among speech-language pathologists. Dysphagia 13: 218-222. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00009575
  5. Pelletier CA. 1997. A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners. Dysphagia 12: 74-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00009522
  6. Stanek K, Hensley C, Van Riper C. 1992. Factors affecting use of food and commercial agents to thicken liquids for individuals with swallowing disorders. J Am Diet Assoc 92: 488-490.
  7. Adeleye B, Rachal C. 2007. Comparison of the rheological properties of ready-to-serve and powdered instant food-thickened beverages at different temperatures for dysphagic patients. J Am Diet Assoc 107: 1176-1182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2007.04.011
  8. Sopade PA, Halley PJ, Cichero JAY, Ward LC. 2007. Rheological characterisation of food thickeners marketed in Australia in various media for the management of dysphagia. I: Water and cordial. J Food Eng 79: 69-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.045
  9. Garcia JM, Chambers E 4th, Matta Z, Clark M. 2008. Serving temperature viscosity measurements of nectar- and honey-thick liquids. Dysphagia 23: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-007-9098-z
  10. Sopade PA, Halley PJ, Cichero JAY, Ward LC, Hui LS, Teo KH. 2008. Rheological characterisation of food thickeners marketed in Australia in various media for the management of dysphagia. II. Milk as a dispersing medium. J Food Eng 84: 553-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.06.024
  11. Sopade PA, Halley PJ, Cichero JAY, Ward LC, Liu J, Varliveli S. 2008. Rheological characterization of food thickeners marketed in Australia in various media for the management of dysphagia. III. Fruit juice as a dispersing medium. J Food Eng 86: 604-615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.11.013
  12. O'Leary M, Hanson B, Smith C. 2010. Viscosity and non-Newtonian features of thickened fluids used for dysphagia therapy. J Food Sci 75: E330-E338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01673.x
  13. Payne C, Methven L, Fairfield C, Bell A. 2011. Consistently inconsistent: commercially available starch-based dysphagia products. Dysphagia 26: 27-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-009-9263-7
  14. Kim SG, Yoo B. 2015. Viscosity of dysphagia-oriented cold-thickened beverages: effect of setting time at refrigeration. Int J Lang Commun Disord 50: 397-402. https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12141
  15. Urlacher B, Noble O. 1997. Xanthan gum. In Thickening and Gelling Agents for Food. Imeson A, ed. Chapman & Hall, London, UK. p 284-311.
  16. Cho HM, Yoo W, Yoo B. 2012. Steady and dynamic rheological properties of thickened beverages used for dysphagia diets. Food Sci Biotechnol 21: 1775-1779. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-012-0237-4
  17. Szczesniak AS, Farkas E. 1962. Objective characterization of the mouthfeel of gum solutions. J Food Sci 27: 381-385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1962.tb00112.x
  18. Steele CM, Van Lieshout PH, Goff HD. 2003. The rheology of liquids: a comparison of clinicians' subjective impressions and objective measurement. Dysphagia 18: 182-195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-002-0104-1
  19. Seo CW, Yoo B. 2013. Steady and dynamic shear rheological properties of gum-based food thickeners used for diet modification of patients with dysphagia: effect of concentration. Dysphagia 28: 205-211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-012-9433-x
  20. Reimers-Neils L, Logemann J, Larson C. 1994. Viscosity effects on EMG activity in normal swallow. Dysphagia 9: 101-106. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00714596
  21. Lopez MJ, Vargas-Garcia MC, Suarez-Estrella F, Moreno J. 2004. Properties of xanthan obtained from agricultural wastes acid hydrolysates. J Food Eng 63: 111-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00289-9
  22. Miladinov VD, Hanna MA. 1996. Apparent viscosity of coextruded starch and xanthan gum. Ind Crops Prod 5: 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/0926-6690(96)89447-7
  23. Mali S, Ferreros C, Redigonda V, Beleia AP, Grossmann MVE, Zaritzky NE. 2003. Influence of pH and hydrocolloids addition on yam (Dioscorea alata) starch pastes stability. LWT-Food Sci Technol 28: 205-211.
  24. Rogols S. 1986. Starch modifications: a view into the future. Cereal Food World 31: 869-873.
  25. Sworn G. 2000. Xanthan gum. In Handbook of Hydrocolloids. Phillips GO, Williams PA, eds. CRC Press, New York, NY, USA. p 103-115.
  26. Sea-kang V, Suphantharika M. 2006. Influence of pH and xanthan gum addition on freeze-thaw stability of tapioca starch pastes. Carbohyd Polym 65: 371-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2006.01.029
  27. Ishihara S, Nakauma M, Funami T, Odake S, Nishinari K. 2011. Swallowing profiles of food polysaccharide gels in relation to bolus rheology. Food Hydrocolloid 25: 1016-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.09.022
  28. Li H, Hou W. 2011. Influences of pH and electrolyte on the rheological properties of aqueous solution of exopolysaccharide secreted by a deep-sea mesophilic bacterium. Food Hydrocoll 25: 1547-1553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.01.014

Cited by

  1. Consistency stability of water thickened with maltodextrin, xanthan gum and potassium chloride 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12272
  2. Comparison of two methods to categorize thickened liquids for dysphagia management in a clinical care setting context: The Bostwick consistometer and the IDDSI Flow Test. Are we talking about the same concept? pp.00224901, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12377
  3. Rheological studies on the effect of different thickeners in texture-modified chicken rendang for individuals with dysphagia vol.55, pp.11, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3386-5