A Study on Exposure Indices for Diesel Engine Exhaust in Forklift Operating Areas

지게차 사용 사업장에서 디젤엔진배출물질 노출지표에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2016.02.19
  • Accepted : 2016.03.20
  • Published : 2016.03.31


Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the exposure levels of forklift operators to diesel engine exhaust(DEE) using black carbon(BC), elemental carbon(EC), and nitrogen dioxide($NO_2$) as indicators. Methods: A total of eight forklift operators in six collection companies were assessed over a period of two months from July to September 2015. BC was measured using a real-time monitor and respirable EC samples were analyzed using the NIOSH method 5040. $NO_2$ samples were collected using a passive badge-type sampler. Results: The geometric mean of BC, EC and $NO_2$ were $3.1-19.1{\mu}g/m^3$, $2.1-23.8{\mu}g/m^3$, and 12.5-166.6 ppb at all companies. When forklifts were operating both outside and inside, BC concentrations increased 2.0-5.6 times. The highest increase was observed when forklifts were operating indoors. The increase in BC concentrations varied by company(company A: 2.0 times, B: 3.2 times, C: 5.6 times, D: 2.1 times, E: 5.1 times, F: 2.6 times). The geometric mean of BC, EC, and $NO_2$ for the forklift operators was $9.6{\mu}g/m^3$, $7.9{\mu}g/m^3$, and 48.9 ppb, respectively. The geometric mean of BC, EC, and $NO_2$ for manufacturing workers was $9.3{\mu}g/m^3$, $0.9{\mu}g/m^3$, and 85.2 ppb, respectively. The mean BC and EC exposure levels for the forklift operators were slightly higher than those for manufacturing workers, but $NO_2$ levels for manufacturing workers were higher than those for the forklift operators(p>0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that diesel exhaust emissions standard, forklift weight and forklift manufacturer were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. Conclusions: In the DEE work environment, workers who perform tasks within the workplace as well as inside forklifts as operators are likely to be exposed to a lack of ventilation. Further study of forklift operators' exposure to DEE indicators should be conducted to include a wider range of occupational and environmental situations, such as collection procedures, seasonal situations, types of fuel used, and number of forklifts.


diesel engine exhaust;exposure assessment;forklift operator


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