- Volume 10 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Numerical analysis of water flow characteristics after inrushing from the tunnel floor in process of karst tunnel excavation
- Received : 2015.08.15
- Accepted : 2016.01.18
- Published : 2016.04.25
In order to investigate water flow characteristics after inrushing in process of karst tunnel excavation, numerical simulations for five case studies of water inrush from the tunnel floor are carried out by using the FLUENT software on the background of Qiyueshan high risk karst tunnel. Firstly, the velocity-distance curves and pressure-distance curves are drawn by selecting a series of probing lines in a plane. Then, the variation characteristics of velocity and pressure are analyzed and the respective optimized escape routes are made. Finally, water flow characteristics after inrushing from the tunnel floor are discussed and summarized by comparing case studies under the conditions of different water-inrush positions and excavation situations. The results show that: (1) Tunnel constructors should first move to the tunnel side wall and then escape quickly when water inrush happens. (2) Tunnel constructors must not stay at the intersection area of the cross passage and tunnels when escaping. (3) When water inrush from floor happens in the left tunnel, if tunnel constructors meet the cross passage during escaping, they should pass through it rapidly, turn to the right tunnel and run to the entrance. (4) When water inrush from floor happens in the left tunnel, if there is not enough time to escape, tunnel constructors can run to the trolley and other equipment in the vicinity of the right tunnel working face. In addition, some rescuing equipment can be set up at the high location of the cross passage. (5) When water inrush from floor happens in the cross passage, tunnel constructors should move to the tunnel side wall quickly, turn to the tunnel without water inrush and run to the entrance. (6) When water inrush from floor happens in the cross passage, if there is not enough time to escape, tunnel constructors can run to the trolley and other equipment near by the left or the right tunnel working face. The results are of important practical significance and engineering value to ensure the safety of tunnel construction.
water inrush;velocity;pressure;flow characteristic;optimized escape routes;karst tunnel
- Chen, L.W., Zhang, S.L. and Gui, H.R. (2014), "Prevention of water and quicksand inrush during extracting contiguous coal seams under the lowermost aquifer in the unconsolidated Cenozoic alluvium-A case study", Arab. J. Geosci, 7(6), 2139-2149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-1029-8
- Cho, J.W., Jeon, S., Jeong, H.Y. and Chang, S.H. (2013), "Evaluation of cutting efficiency during TBM disc cutter excavation within a Korean granitic rock using linear-cutting-machine testing and photogrammetric measurement", Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Tech., 35, 37-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2012.08.006
- Di, Q.Y., Wu, F.Q., Wang, G.J., Tao, B., Gong, F., An, Z.G., Shi, K.F., Li, Y.X., Wang, R. and Wang, M.Y. (2005), "Geophysical exploration over long deep tunnel for west route of south-to-north water transfer project", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 24(20), 3631-3638.
- Do, N.A., Oreste, P., Dias, D., Antonello, C., Irini, D.M. and Livio, L. (2014), "Stress and strain state in the segmental linings during mechanized tunnelling", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 7(1), 75-85. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2014.7.1.075
- Fahimifar, A., Ghadami, H. and Ahmadvand, M. (2015), "The ground response curve of underwater tunnels, excavated in a strain-softening rock mass", Geomech. Eng, Int. J., 8(3), 323-359. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2015.8.3.323
- Golob, R., Stokelj, T. and Grgic, D. (1998), "Neural-network-based water inflow forecasting", Control Eng. Pract., 6(5), 593-600. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0661(98)00037-9
- Hu, Y., Yan, G. and Shi, X. (2008), "Study on physical and numerical simulation of water inrush prediction theory for coal mining above confined aquifer", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 27(1), 9-15.
- Huang, C.H., Feng, T., Wang, W.J. and Liu, H. (2010), "Mine water inrush prediction based on fractal and support vector machines", J. Chinese Coal Soc., 35(5), 806-810.
- Huang, H.F., Mao, X.B., Yao, B.H. and Pu, H. (2012), "Numerical simulation on fault water-inrush based on fluid-solid coupling theory", J. Coal Sci. Eng., 18(3), 291-296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12404-012-0312-8
- Islam, M.R. and Islam, M.S. (2005), "Water inrush hazard in Barapukuria coal mine, Dinajpur District, Bangladesh", Bangl. J. Geol., 24(1), 1-17.
- Ivars, D.M. (2006), "Water inflow into excavations in fractured rock-A three-dimensional hydromechanical numerical study", Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 43(5), 705-725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2005.11.009
- Jin, H., Shi, L.Q., Yu, X.G., Wei, J.C. and Li, S.C. (2009), "Mechanism of mine water-inrush through a fault from the floor", Min. Sci. Tech, 19(3), 276-281.
- Kong, H.L. and Chen, Z.Q. (2006), "Water-inrush-factor and its application in the analysis on harmfulness of water-inrush in the long wall mining in longgu coal mine", J. Wuhan U. Tech., 28(9), 80-81.
- Kong, H.L., Miao, X.X., Wang, L.Z., Zhang, Y. and Chen, Z.Q. (2007), "Analysis of the harmfulness of water-inrush from coal seam floor based on seepage instability theory", J. China U. Min. Tech., 17(4), 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-1266(07)60124-2
- Lei, X., Zhang, J. and Xie, T. (2003), "Forecast for water-inrush from coal floor based on genetic neural networks", Comput. Eng., 11, 132-133.
- Li, L.J. and Zhang, J.J. (1995), "Calculation and prediction of water-inrush from mining floor and its application", Coal Geol. Explor., 23(4), 34-38.
- Li, L.J., Qian, M.G. and Li, S.G. (1996), "Mechanism of water-inrush through fault", J. China Coal Soc., 21(2), 119-123.
- Li, S.C., Li, S.C., Zhang, Q.S., Xue, Y.G., Ding, W.T., Zhong, S.H., He, F.L. and Lin, Y.S. (2007), "Forecast of karst-fractured groundwater and defective geological conditions", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 26(2), 217-225.
- Li, S.C., Xue, Y.G., Zhang, Q.S., Li, S.C., Li, L.P., Sun, K.G., Ge, Y.H., Su, M.X., Zhong, S.H. and Li, X. (2008), "Key technology study on comprehensive prediction and early-warning of geological hazards during construction in high-risk karst areas", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 27(7), 1297-1307.
- Li, L.C., Tang, C.A., Liang, Z.Z., Ma, T.H. and Zhang, Y.B. (2009a), "Numerical simulation on water inrush process due to activation of collapse columns in coal seam floor", J. Min. Safe Eng., 2, 158-162.
- Li, Q.F., Wang, W.J., Zhu, C.Q. and Peng, W.Q. (2009b), "Analysis of fault water-inrush mechanism based on the principle of water-resistant key strata", J. Min. Safe Eng., 1, 87-90.
- Li, L.P., Li, S.C. and Zhang, Q.S. (2010a), "Study of mechanism of water inrush induced by hydraulic fracturing in karst tunnels", Rock. Soil Mech., 2, 523-528.
- Li, S.C., Li, S.C., Zhang, Q.S., Xue, Y.G., Liu, B., Su, M.X., Wang, Z.C. and Wang, S.G. (2010b), "Predicting geological hazards during tunnel construction", Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng., 2(3), 232-242. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1235.2010.00232
- Li, S.C., Zhou, Z.Q., Li, L.P., Xu, Z.H., Zhang, Q.Q. and Shi, S.S. (2013), "Risk assessment of water inrush in karst tunnels based on attribute synthetic evaluation system", Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Tech., 38, 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2013.05.001
- Li, S.C., Xu, Z.H. and Ma, G.W. (2014), "A graph-theoretic pipe network method for water flow simulation in discrete fracture networks: GPNM", Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Tech., 42, 247-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2014.03.012
- Li, L.P., Lei, T., Li, S.C., Xu, Z.H., Xue, Y.G. and Shi, S.S. (2015a), "Dynamic risk assessment of water inrush in tunnelling and software development", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 9(1), 57-81. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2015.9.1.057
- Li, L.P., Lei, T., Li, S.C., Zhang, Q.Q., Xu, Z.H., Shi, S.S. and Zhou, Z.Q. (2015b), "Risk assessment of water inrush in karst tunnels and soft development", Arab. J. Geosci., 8(4), 1843-1854. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-014-1365-3
- Liao, W., Zhou, R.Y. and Li, S.Q. (2006), "Study on the non-linear forecast methods for water inrush from coal floor based on wavelet neural network", China Safe Sci. J., 11, 24-28.
- Ling, S.X., Ren, Y., Wu, X.Y., Zhao, S.Y. and Qin, L.M. (2015), "Study on reservoir and water inrush characteristic in Nibashan Tunnel, Sichuan Province, China", Eng. Geol. Soc. Territ., 6, 577-582.
- Liu, H.L., Yang, T.H., Yu, Q.L., Chen, S.K. and Wei, C.H. (2010), "Numerical analysis on the process of water inrush from the floor of seam 12 in Fangezhuang coal mine", Coal Geol. Explor., 38(3), 27-31.
- Liu, Z., Jin, D. and Liu, Q. (2011), "Prediction of water inrush through coal floors based on data mining classification technique", Procedia Earth. Planet Sci., 3, 166-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2011.09.079
- Ma, L., Liu, Y. and Zhou, X.P. (2010), "Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method of F statistics weighting in identifying mine water inrush source", Int. J. Eng. Sci. Tech., 2(7), 123-128.
- Marinelli, F. and Niccoli, W.L. (2000), "Simple analytical equations for estimating ground water inflow to a mine pit", Groundwater, 38(2), 311-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2000.tb00342.x
- Meng, Z.P., Li, G.Q. and Xie, X.T. (2012), "A geological assessment method of floor water inrush risk and its application", Eng. Geol., 143, 51-60.
- Qian, Q.H. (2012), "Challenges faced by underground projects construction safety and countermeasures", J. Rock Mech. Eng., 31(10), 1945-1956.
- Qian, Q.H., Li. Z.P. and Fu, D.M. (2002), "The present and prospect of application of tunnels in China's underground engineering", J. Undergr. Sp., 22(1), 1-11.
- Qu, H.F., Liu, Z.G. and Zhu, H.H. (2006), "Technique of synthetic geologic prediction ahead in tunnel informational construction", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 25(6), 1246-1251.
- Shang, Y.J., Yang, Z.F., Zeng, Q.L., Sun, Y.C., Shi, Y.Y. and Yuan, G.X. (2007), "Retrospective analysis of TBM accidents from its poor flexibility to complicated geological conditions", J. Rock Mech. Eng., 26(12), 2404-2411.
- Shi, L.Q. and Singh, R.N. (2001), "Study of mine water inrush from the tunnel floor strata through faults", Min. Water. Environ., 20(3), 140-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-001-8095-y
- Shi, L. and Xu, L.Y. (2010), "Prediction of mine water inrush sources based on cluster analysis of hydro geochemical features", Coal Sci. Tech., 3, 97-100.
- Shi, L.Q., Qiu, M., Wei, W.X., Xu, D.J. and Han, J. (2014), "Water inrush evaluation of coal seam floor by integrating the water inrush coefficient and the information of water abundance", Int. J. Min. Sci. Tech., 24(5), 677-681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2014.03.028
- Wang, J.H. and Lu, C.C. (2007), "A semi-analytical method for analyzing the tunnel water inflow", Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Tech., 22(1), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2006.03.003
- Wang, J.T. and Wang, X.L. (2011), "Discussion on water inrush coefficient method applied to predict water inrush danger of seam floor based on Gaojiata Mine as example", Coal Sci. Tech., 7, 106-111.
- Wang, L.G., Song, Y. and Miao, X.X. (2003), "Study on prediction of water-inrush from coal floor based on cusp catastrophic model", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 22(4), 573-577.
- Wang, T.T., Wang, W.L. and Lin, M.L. (2004), "Harnessing the catastrophic inrush of water into new Yungchuen Tunnel in Taiwan", Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Tech., 19(4-5), 418-426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2004.02.037
- Wang, J.S., Wang, L., Cao, Z.G., Liu, Z.G., Wang, L. and Zhu, H. (2007), "Practice on synthetic geological prediction ahead of construction of Xiamen subsea tunnel", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 26(11), 2309-2317.
- Wang, Y., Yang, W., Li, M. and Liu, X. (2012), "Risk assessment of floor water inrush in coal mines based on secondary fuzzy comprehensive evaluation", Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 52, 50-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.03.006
- Wu, Q., Xu, H. and Pang, W. (2008), "GIS and ANN coupling model: an innovative approach to evaluate vulnerability of karst water inrush in coalmines of north China", Environ. Geol., 54(5), 937-943. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0887-3
- Wu, Q., Liu, Y., Liu, D. and Zhou, W. (2011a), "Prediction of floor water inrush: the application of GISbased AHP vulnerable index method to Donghuantuo coal mine, China", Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 44(5), 591-600. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-011-0146-5
- Wu, Q., Zhu, B. and Liu, S.Q. (2011b), "Flow-solid coupling simulation method analysis and time identification of lagging water-inrush near mine fault belt", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 30(1), 93-105.
- Xu, J.L., Zhu, W.B. and Wang, X.Z. (2011), "Study on water-inrush mechanism and prevention during coal mining under unconsolidated confined aquifer", J. Min. Safe. Eng., 3, 333-339.
- Xu, Z.H., Ma, G.W. and Li, S.C. (2014), "A Graph-theoretic Pipe Network Method for water flow simulation in a porous medium: GPNM", Int. J. Heat Fluid Fl., 45, 81-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2013.11.003
- Yao, B.H., Bai, H.B. and Zhang, B.Y. (2012), "Numerical simulation on the risk of roof water inrush in Wuyang Coal Mine", Int. J. Min. Sci. Tech., 22(2), 273-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2012.03.006
- Yang, X.L. and Yan, R.M. (2015), "Collapse mechanism for deep tunnel subjected to seepage force in layered soils", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 8(5), 741-756. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2015.8.5.741
- Yin, S.X. and Wu, Q. (2004), "Simulation and mechanism analysis of water inrush from karst collapse columns in coal floor", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng., 15, 2551-2256.
- Zarei, H.R., Uromeily, A. and Sharifzadeh, M. (2012), "Identifying geological hazards related to tunneling in carbonate karstic rocks-Zagros, Iran", Arba. J. Geosci., 5(3), 457-464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-010-0218-y
- Zhang, J.C. (2005), "Investigations of water inrushes from aquifers under coal seams", Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 42(3), 350-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2004.11.010
- Zhang, J.J. and Fu, B.J. (2007), "Advances in tunnel boring machine application in China", J. Rock Mech. Eng., 26(2), 226-238.
- Zhang, J. and Peng, S. (2005), "Water inrush and environmental impact of shallow seam mining", Environ. geol., 48(8), 1068-1076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-0045-8
- Zhang, H.S., Xue, G.W., Shi, X.W., Liu, H.F. and Hu, Y.Q. (2009), "Prediction of water inrush from coal seam floor confined based on geo-information composite overlay analysis", J. China Coal Soc., 34(8), 1100-1104.
- Zhou, Z.Q., Li, S.C., Li, L.P., Shi, S.S. and Xu, Z.H. (2015), "An optimal classification method for risk assessment of water inrush in karst tunnels based on the grey system", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 8(5), 631-647. https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2015.8.5.631
- Zhu, W.C. and Wei, C.H. (2011), "Numerical simulation on mining-induced water inrushes related to geologic structures using a damage-based hydro mechanical model", Environ. Earth Sci., 62(1), 43-54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0494-6
- Zhu, Q.H., Feng, M.M. and Mao, X.B. (2008), "Numerical analysis of water inrush from working-face floor during mining", J. China U. Min. Tech., 18(2), 159-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-1266(08)60034-6
- Semianalytical Solution to Determine Minimum Safety Thickness of Rock Resisting Water Inrush from Filling-Type Karst Caves vol.18, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001071
- A multi-factor comprehensive risk assessment method of karst tunnels and its engineering application 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-017-1214-1
- Flow Characteristics and Escape-Route Optimization after Water Inrush in a Backward-Excavated Karst Tunnel vol.17, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000787
- A possible prediction method to determine the top concealed karst cave based on displacement monitoring during tunnel construction 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-017-1060-1
Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China