- Volume 17 Issue 3
Background: The incidence of breast cancer is rapidly increasing in Yemen with recent indications of constituting one-third of female cancers. The main problem in Yemen remains very late presentation of breast cancer, most of which should have been easily recognisable. Since stage of disease at diagnosis is the most important prognostic variable, early diagnosis is an important option to be considered for control of breast cancer in low resourced settings like Yemen. In the present study, we aimed at describing breast cancer knowledge, perceptions and breast self-examination (BSE) practices among a sample of Yemeni women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study covered 400 women attending four reproductive health centres in Aden, Yemen through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire during April - July 2014. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge about breast cancer, and screening practices as well as respondents' perceptions based on the five sub scales of the Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived susceptibility; perceived severity; perceived barriers; perceived benefits; and self-efficacy. The response format was a five-point Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20) was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Logistic regression analysis was conducted with BSE as a dependent variable. Results: The mean age of women was 26.5 (S.D=5.6) years. The majority (89.0%) had never ever performed any screening. Two-thirds of respondents had poor knowledge. Perceived BSE benefits and self-efficacy and lower BSE barriers perception were significant independent predictors of BSE practice. Conclusions: Poor knowledge and inadequate BSE practices are prevailing in Yemen. The need for implementing culturally sensitive targeted education measures is mandatory in the effort to improve early detection and reduce the burden of breast cancer.
Breast cancer;breast self-examination;knowledge;perception;Health Belief Model;Yemen
- Abolfotouh1 MA, BaniMustafa AA, Mahfouz AA, et al (2015). Using the health belief model to predict breast self examination among Saudi women. BMC Public Health, 15, 1163-74. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2510-y
- Akhtari-Zavare M, Ghanbari-Baghestan A, Latiff LA, et al (2014). Knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination practice among Iranian women in Hamedan, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6531-4. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.16.6531
- American Cancer Society (ACS) (2005). Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2005-2006. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society.
- Ba'amer AA (2010). Awareness and practice of breast cancer and breast-self examination among university students in Yemen. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 101-5.
- Ba Saleem HO, Bawazir AA, Moore M, Al-Sakkaf KA (2010). Five years cancer incidence in Aden Cancer Registry, Yemen (2002-2006). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 507-11.
- Ba Saleem HO (2013). Cancer incidence report 2007-2011. Aden Cancer Registry and Research Centre, Aden. Yemen.
- Badheeb AM, Ba'amer AA (2012). Cancer incidence report 2000-2011. hadhramout cancer registry, hadhramout cancer foundation. yemen.
- Bray F, Ren JS, Masuyer E, et al (2013). Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int J Cancer, 132, 1133-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27711
- Champion VL (1984). Instrument development for health belief model constructs. Adv Nurs Sci, 6, 73-85. https://doi.org/10.1097/00012272-198404000-00011
- Champion VL, Scott CR (1997). Reliability and validity of breast cancer screening belief scales in African American women. Nurs Res, 46, 331-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199711000-00006
- El-Zaemey S, Nagi N, Fritschi L, et al (2012). Breast cancer among Yemeni women using the National Oncology Centre Registry 2004-2010. Cancer Epidemiol, 36, 249-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2012.01.006
- El Saghir NS, Khalil MK, Eid T, et al (2007). Trends in epidemiology and management of breast cancer in developing Arab countries: a literature and registry analysis. Int J Surg, 5, 225-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2006.06.015
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2013). GLOBOCAN 2012, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancer base No. 11 [Internet]. lyon, france: international agency for research on cancer.
- Ghanem S, Glaoui M, Elkhoyaali S, et al (2011). Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco. Pan Afr Med J, 10, 21.
- Guvenc I, Guvenc G, Tastan S, et al (2012). Identifying women's knowledge about risk factors of breast cancer and reasons for having mammography. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4191-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.8.4191
- Harhra NA, BaSaleem HO (2013). Trends of breast cancer and its management in the last twenty years in aden and adjacent governorates, yemen. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4347-51.
- Heidari Z, Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb HR, Sakhavar N (2008). Breast cancer screening knowledge and practice among women in southeast of Iran. Acta Med Iranica, 46, 321-8.
- Humphrey L, Helfanol M, Chan P, et al (2002). Breast cancer screening: a summary of the evidence for the US preventive services task force. Ann Inter Med, 137, 347-60. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-137-5_Part_1-200209030-00012
- Lwanga, SK, Lemshow, S (1991). Sample size determination in health studies; a practical manual. geneva, World Health Organisation.
- Montazeri A, Haji-Mahmoodi M, Jarvandi S (2003). Breast self-examination: Knowledge, attitudes and practices among female health care workers in Tehran, Iran. J Public Health Med, 25, 154-5. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdg031
- Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, et al (2008). Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med, 7, 6-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1447-056X-7-6
- Nafissi N, Saghafinia M, Motamedi MK, et al (2012). A survey of breast cancer knowledge and attitude in Iranian women. J Can Res Ther, 8, 46-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.95173
- Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, et al (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
- Parsa P, Kandiah M, Zulkefli MNA, et al (2008). Knowledge and behaviour regarding breast cancer screening among female teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 221-7.
- Rastgoi M (2004). Increase in cancer death by the year 2020. geneva: world health organization.
- Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al (2007). American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin, 57, 75-89. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.57.2.75
- Saadat S (2008). Can we prevent breast cancer? Int J Health Sci (Qassim), 2, 167-70.
- Shiryazdi1 SM, Kholasehzadeh G, Neamatzadeh H, et al (2014). Health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors among Iranian female health workers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 9817-22. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.9817
- Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Eyre HJ (2005). American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 31-44. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.1.31
- Subramanian P, Oranye NO, Masri AM, et al (2013). Breast cancer knowledge and screening behaviour among women with a positive family history: A cross sectional study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6783-90. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6783
- Tavafian S, Hasani L, Aghamolaei T, et al (2009). Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the health belief model. BMC Women's Health, 9, 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-9-37
- Tazhibi M, Feizi A (2014). Awareness levels about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, screening and therapeutic approaches among iranian adult women: a large population based study using latent class analysis. BioMed Res Int, 306352-61.
- Yavari P, Pourhoseingholi MA (2007). Socioeconomic factors association with knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Iranian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 618-22.
- Yousuf SA, Al Amoudi SM, Nicolas W, et al (2012). Do Saudi nurses in primary health care centres have breast cancer knowledge to promote breast cancer awareness? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4459-64. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4459
- Effectiveness of a multimodal standard nursing program on health-related quality of life in Chinese mainland female patients with breast cancer: protocol for a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial vol.16, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2726-y