Effect of near field earthquake on the monuments adjacent to underground tunnels using hybrid FEA-ANN technique

  • Jafarnia, Mohsen (Faculty of Engineering, Central Tehran Branch - Islamic Azad University) ;
  • Varzaghani, Mehdi Imani (Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University)
  • 투고 : 2014.12.24
  • 심사 : 2015.12.16
  • 발행 : 2016.04.25


In the past decades, effect of near field earthquake on the historical monuments has attracted the attention of researchers. So, many analyses in this regard have been presented. Tunnels as vital arteries play an important role in management after the earthquake crisis. However, digging tunnels and seismic effects of earthquake on the historical monuments have always been a challenge between engineers and historical supporters. So, in a case study, effect of near field earthquake on the historical monument was investigated. For this research, Finite Element Analysis (FEM) in soil environment and soil-structure interaction was used. In Plaxis 2D software, different accelerograms of near field earthquake were applied to the geometric definition. Analysis validations were performed based on the previous numerical studies. Creating a nonlinear relationship with space parameter, time, angular and numerical model outputs was of practical and critical importance. Hence, artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used and two linear layers and Tansig function were considered. Accuracy of the results was approved by the appropriate statistical test. Results of the study showed that buildings near and far from the tunnel had a special seismic behavior. Scattering of seismic waves on the underground tunnels on the adjacent buildings was influenced by their distance from the tunnel. Finally, a static test expressed optimal convergence of neural network and Plaxis.


soil-structure interaction;tunnel;historical monuments;artificial neural network (ANN);near field earthquake


  1. Azarhoosh, Z. and Amiri, R.G. (2010), "Elastic response of soil-structure systems subjected to near-fault rupture directivity pulses", Proceedings of GeoShanghai International Conference, Shanghai, China.
  2. Tornello, M.E. and Sarrazin, M. (2012), "Base-isolated building with high-damping spring system subjected to near fault earthquakes", Earthq. Struct., 3(3), 315-340.
  3. Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis, A.I. (2012), "Seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings based on damage data after a near field earthquake (7 September 1999 Athens-Greece)", Earthq. Struct., 3(2), 117-140.
  4. Liu, T., Luan, Y. and Zhong, W. (2012), "Earthquake responses of clusters of building structures caused by a near-field thrust fault", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 42(1), 56-70.
  5. Ural, A. (2013), "19th May 2011 Simav (Kutahya) earthquake and response of masonry Halil Aga Mosque", Earthq. Struct., 4(6), 671-683.
  6. Rampello, S., Callisto, L., Viggiani, G. and Soccodato, F.M. (2012), "Evaluating the effects of tunnelling on historical buildings: the example of a new subway in Rome/Auswertung der Auswirkungen des Tunnelbaus auf historische Gebaude am Beispiel einer neuen U-Bahnlinie in Rom", Geomech. Tunnel., 5(3), 275-299.
  7. Giardina, G., Hendriks, M. and Rots, J. (2014), "Damage functions for the vulnerability assessment of masonry buildings subjected to tunneling", Struct. Eng., 140(10), 04014212.
  8. Farrell, R., Mair, R., Sciotti, A. and Pigorini, A. (2013), "Building response to tunnelling", Soil. Found., 54(3), 269-279.
  9. Liu, N., Liu, Y., Han, D., Men, Y. and Peng, J. (2010), "Prototype model tests of soil and tunnel interactions under earthquake forces", Proceeding of Tenth International Conference of ChineseTransportation Professionals (ICCTP), Beijing, China.
  10. Manolis, G.D., Makra, K., Dineva, P.S. and Rangelov, T.V. (2013), "Seismic motions in a nonhomogeneous soil deposit with tunnels by a hybrid computational technique", Earthq. Struct., 5(2), 161-205.
  11. Baziar, M.H., Moghadam, M.R., Kim, D.S. and Choo, Y.W. (2014), "Effect of underground tunnel on the ground surface acceleration", Tunnel. Undergr. Space Technol., 44(1), 10-12.
  12. Afifipour, A., Sharifzadeh, M., Shahriar, K. and Jamshidi, H. (2011), "Interaction of twin tunnels and shallow foundation at Zand underpass, Shiraz metro, Iran", Tunnel. Undergr. Space Technol., 26(2), 356-363.