Heat Stress Assessment and the Establishment of a Forecast System to Provide Thermophysiological Indices for Harbor Workers in Summer

하계 항만열환경정보 제공을 위한 열환경 평가 및 예보시스템 구축

  • Received : 2016.01.12
  • Accepted : 2016.04.05
  • Published : 2016.04.29


Objectives: Outdoor workers are exposed to thermally stressful work environments. In this study, heat stress indices for harbor workers in summer were calculated to evaluate thermal comfort based on a human heat balance model. These indices are Physiological Subjective Temperature (PST), Dehydration Risk (DhR), and Overheating Risk (OhR) according to respective stage of cargo work in a harbor. In addition, we constructed a forecast system to provide heat stress information. Methods: Thermophysiological indices in this study were calculated using the MENEX model (i.e. the human heat balance model), which used as inputs the meteorological parameters, clothing insulation, and metabolic rate for each stage of cargo work in the harbor of Masan over the course of seven days, including a four-day heat wave. The forecast heat stress information constructed for Masan harbor was based on meteorological data supported by the Dong-Nae Forecast from the KMA (Korea Metrological Administration) and other input parameters. Results: According to higher metabolic rate, thermophysiological indices showed a critical level. In particular, PST was evaluated as reaching the 'Very hot' or 'Hot' level during all seven days, despite the heat occurring over only four. It is important in a regard to consider the work environment conditions (i.e. labor intensity and clothing in harbor). On a webpage, the forecast thermophysiological indices show as infographics to be easily understand. This webpage is comprised of indices for both current conditions and the forecast, with brief guidance. Conclusion: Thermophysiological indices show the risk level to health during a heat wave period. Heat stress information could help to protect the health of harbor workers. Further, this study could extend the applicability of these indices to a variety of outdoor workers in consideration of work environments.


Forecast system;harbor;heat stress;human heat balance;thermophysiological model


  1. IPCC (Qin, D., Plattner, G. K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., et al.) Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. T. Stocker (Ed.). Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press; 2014
  2. Xiang, J., Bi, P., Pisaniello, D., Hansen, A. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental research. 1941; 133: 90-95.
  3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration( NOAA), National Weather Service Weather Prediction Center. Available: [accessed 5 January 2016].
  4. Korea Meteorology Administration, Heat Health Warning System. Available: [accessed 5 January 2016].
  5. Masan Regional Office of Oceans and Fisheries, Masan Port. Available: [accessed 5 January 2016].
  6. Blazejczyk, K. MENEX_2005: The updated version of Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model. 2005. Available: [accessed 5 January 2016].
  7. Blazejczyk, K., Matzarakis, A. Assessment of bioclimatic differentiation of Poland based on the human heat balance. Geographia Polonica. 2007; 80(1): 63-82.
  8. Kim YJ, Kim H, Kim YK, Kim JK, Kim YM. Evaluation of Thermal Environments during the Heat Waves of Summer 2013 in Busan Metropolitan Area. Journal of Environmental Science International. 2014; 23(11): 1929-1941.
  9. Busan Regional Meteorological Administration 'Development of thermal environmental information in Busan port' Report; 2014.
  10. ISO 8996 (2004) $Ergonomics^{^{\circ}{TM}}determination$ of metabolic heat production. International Standards Organization.
  11. Havenith, G., Fiala, D., Bazejczyk, K., Richards, M., Brode, P., Holmer, I, et al. The UTCI-clothing model. International journal of biometeorology. 2012; 56(3): 461-470.
  12. Gagge, A. P., Burton, A. C., Bazett, H. C. A Practical System of Units for the Description of the Heat Exchange of Man with his Environment. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science. 1941; 428-30.
  13. ISO 7730 (1994) Moderate thermal environments-determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort.
  14. ISO 9920 (1995) Ergonomics of the thermal environment-estimation of the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of a clothing ensemble.
  15. United States Department Of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Available:
  16. NIOSH [2010]. NIOSH fast facts: protecting yourself from heat stress. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010-114. Available:
  17. Fanger, P. O. Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering. Mc. Graww Hill, New York; 1972.
  18. Hoppe, P. The physiological equivalent temperature- a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International journal of Biometeorology. 1999; 43(2): 71-75.
  19. Parsons, K. Human thermal environments: the effects of hot, moderate, and cold environments on human health, comfort, and performance. Crc Press; 2014.
  20. Jendritzky, G., Gratz, A. Modelling the Urban Bioclimate for Planning Purposes. In Proceedings of the 13th ISB-Congress, Calgary, Canada. Environment Canada. 1994; 2: 792-805.
  21. Jendritzky, G., Maarouf, A., Staiger, H. Looking for a universal thermal climate index (UTCI) for outdoor applications. In Windsor-conference on thermal standards. 2001; 5-8.
  22. Blazejczyk, K., Epstein, Y., Jendritzky, G., Staiger, H., Tinz, B. Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices. International journal of biometeorology. 2012; 56(3): 515-535.
  23. World Meteorological Organization. Manual on Marine Meteorological Services. 1st ed. No. 558. Geneva: WMO; 2012.


Supported by : 부산지방기상청, 기상청