Indoor air pollution in ger, a traditional type of residence in Mongolia

몽골 울란바토르 시 전통 주거공간의 실내공기 오염 기초조사

  • Received : 2016.02.11
  • Accepted : 2016.04.18
  • Published : 2016.04.29


Objectives: The traditional type of residence in used in Mongolia, called a ger, is an important residential form and applies coal combustion for cooking and heating. The combustion of coal in ger is the major source of indoor air pollution. The purposes of this study were to measure indoor air pollution in ger and determine the effect of cooking and heating activities. Methods: Indoor temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter less than $2.5{\mu}m$ ($PM_{2.5}$) and black carbon (BC) were continuously measured for 24 hours in eight ger. The measurements were conducted in January or February 2015. Heavy metals in $PM_{2.5}$ filter samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Results: Average indoor temperature and relative humidity were $19.6{\pm}4.6^{\circ}C$ and $21.4{\pm}5.2%$, respectively. The average indoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in the eight ger was $119.8{\mu}g/m^3$ and ranged from 69.4 to $202.7{\mu}g/m^3$. The peak concentrations of $PM_{2.5}$ and BC during cooking and heating periods were several times higher than the 24- hour average concentration. Conclusion: The major contributor to indoor $PM_{2.5}$ and BC concentrations in the ger was coal combustion for cooking and heating.


Black carbon;household combustion;indoor air quality;Mongolia;pm2.5


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