- Volume 44 Issue 2
The purpose of this study is to analyze the change of environmental capacity in Yong-in City, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea through calculation of ecological footprint indices and analysis of their changes, and to suggest implications for urban development and planning. In this study, we analyzed ecological footprints of 1993, 2003, and 2013 to understand the patterns of land use changes and development in Yong-in City. We also compared the GIS land cover maps and ecological footprint indices to figure out land cover changes associated with resource consumption in Yong-in City. As a result, we found the following three lessons. First, the ecological footprint indices of Yong-in City are 3.20(gha) in 1993, 6.50(gha) in 2003, and 11.15(gha) in 2013. This implies that the ecological footprint of Yong-in City is much larger than 1.80(gha), the globally required ecological footprint per capita and 3.56(gha), the average ecological footprint of South Korea. Second, the forest ecological footprint of Yong-in City was calculated as the largest, followed by the ecological footprints of energy, food, and built environment. In particular, the forest ecological footprint was the most rapidly increased from 0.002(gha) in 1993 to 7.32(gha) in 2013, followed by energy ecological footprint from 0.87(gha) to 2.38(gha). This implies that the provision and consumption of timber are seriously unbalanced, and energy consumption is unsustainable because of the rapid increase of residential and commercial land development in the city. Third, our analysis of the rapid increase of forest ecological footprint indicates that the disturbed forest areas are concentrated in the increased built environment areas. We also observed that the increase of energy ecological footprint indices was caused largely by the increase of the commercial and road areas. This implies that Yong-in City should minimize forest disturbance and expand green areas for future in the city. In addition, this may provide a reasonable ground that the city should reduce the use of fossil fuels and facilitate the use of renewable energy.
Ecological Capacity;Ecological Footprint Analysis;EFA;Sustainable Development
- Ayres, R. U.(2000) Commentary on the utility of the ecological footprint concept. Ecological Economics 32(3): 347-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00151-2
- Choi, J. I., J. Y. Jung and G. S. Hong(2011) A Study on the Environmental Capacity Assessment in Seoul Metropolitan Area Using Ecological Footprint. The Seoul Institute, p. 27.
- Choi, J. I.(2012) Study on the Environmental Capacity and Sustainable Assessment in Seoul Metropolitan Area Using Ecological Footprint. MS Dissertation. Hongik University, Seoul, Korea.
- Han, S. G.(2012) Study on Ecological Footprint Methodologies for Sustainability Management. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea.
- Herendeen, R, A.(2000) Ecological footprint is a vivid indicator of indirect effects. Ecological Economics 32(3): 357-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00153-6
- Jeonbuk Development Institute(2005) Research of the Ecological Capacity and City Development Capacity Evaluation in Jeollabuk-do.
- Joo, Y. J.(2009) A Study on Evaluating Environmental Capacity for Sustainable Eco-City. MS Dissertation. Anyang University, Anyang, Korea.
- Kang, S.(2003) Research of the Yongin City("Vision of the Yongin City and development management"). Gyeonggi Research Institute. p. 24.
- Kim, J. C.(2011) Research of footprint: Carbon footprint, water footprint, and ecological footprint. Korean National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (48): 90-95.
- Kim, J. G.(2003) Research of the Yongin City("Problem of the Yongin City's basic city planning"). Gyeonggi Research Institute. p. 94.
- Kim, K. T.(2006) Research of the City Ecological Capacity Evaluation with Ecological Footprint, Kyungbuk University, MS Dissertation. Daegu, Korea.
- Korea Environment Institute(2014) Research of the Ecological Capacity Evaluation with Ecological Footprint in Chungcheongnam-do.
- Lee, S. M. and C. H. Oh(2009) Korea's application case and direction of ecological footprint. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture (3): 88-91.
- Lee, S. H.(2001) Research of Ulsan Ecological Capacity Analysis by Ecological Footprint. Ulsan Development Institute.
- Lee, Y. H.(2003) Research of the Yongin City("Policy of the city and Yongin Citizen's life"). Gyeonggi Research Institute. p. 7.
- Lee, C. W.(1999) Research of the Ecological Capacity Evaluation in Seoul. Seoul Institute.
- Lim, J. H. and J. H. Lee(2002) A study on the environmental carrying capacity assessment of Chongju City. Environmental Impact Assessment 11(1): 25-26.
- Moon, K. J.(2004) An ecological footprint analysis of urban sustainability. SAPA: Seoul Association for Public Administration 15(3): 129-158.
- Moore(2011) Utah Vital Signs Project Team 2007.
- Park, Y. S. and S. J. Lee(2003) Environmental Diagnosis Yongin City, Industrial Liaison Research. Institute Kangnam University, Yongin, p. 74.
- Wackernagel and Rees(2004) Calculating national and global ecological footprint time series: resolving conceptual challenges. Land Use Policy 21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2003.10.006
- Wackernagel and Rees(2006) Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact of Earth. Philadelphia, PA and Gaboriola Island. Canada: New Society Publishers.
- World wildlife Federation(WWF)(2006) Ecological Footprint: Taking the First Step.