- Volume 44 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Haptic Perception presented in Picturesque Gardens - With a Focus on Picturesque Garden in Eighteenth-Century England -
픽처레스크 정원에 나타난 촉지적 지각 - 18세기 영국 픽처레스크 정원을 중심으로 -
Kim, Jin-Seob;Kim, Jin-Seon
- Received : 2016.01.28
- Accepted : 2016.04.10
- Published : 2016.04.30
Modern optical mechanisms slanted toward Ocular-centrism have neglected diverse functions of vision, judged objects in abstract and binary perspectives, and organized spaces accordingly, there by neglecting the function of eyes groping objects. Recently, various experiences have been induced through communication with other senses by the complex perception beyond the binary perception system of vision. Haptic perception is dynamic vision that induces accompanying bodily experiences through interaction among the various senses; it recognizes the characteristics of material properties and various sensitive stimulations of human beings. This study elaborates on the major features of haptic perception by examining the theoretical background of this concept, which stimulates the active experience of the subject and determines how characteristics of haptic perception are displayed in picturesque gardens. In order to identify the major features of haptic perception, this study examines how Adolf Hildebrand's theory of vision is developed, expanded, and reinterpreted by Alois Riegl, Wilhelm Worringer, Walter Benjamin, Maurice Merleau Ponty, and Gilles Deleuze in the histories of philosophy and aesthetics. Based thereon, the core differences in haptic perception models and visual perception models are analyzed, and the features of haptic perception are identified. Then, classical gardens are set for visual perception and picturesque gardens are set for haptic perception so that the features from haptic perception identified previously are projected onto the picturesque gardens. The research results drawn from this study regarding features of haptic perception presented in picturesque gardens are as follows. The core differences of haptic perception in contrast to visual perception can be summarized as ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries, generation of dynamic perspectives, induction of motility by indefinite circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty by the impossibility of perception. In picturesque gardens, the ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries are presented in the irregularity and asymmetric elements of planes and the rejection of a single view, and the generation of dynamic perspectives results from the adoption of narrative structure and overlapping of spaces through the creation of complete views, medium range views, and distant views, which the existing gardens lack. Thus, the scene composition technique is reproduced. The induction of motility by indefinite circulation is created by branching circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty are presented through the use of various elements and the adoption of 'roughness', 'irregularity', and 'ruins' in the gardens.
Ambiguity and Obscureness of Boundaries;Dynamic Perspective;Induction of Motility;Defamiliarization
- Riegl, A.(1901) Late Roman Art Industry, trans. Rolf Winkes, Giorgio Bretschneider Editore, Italy, Rome, 1985(Originally published as Spatromische Kunstindustrie, Vienna, 1901).
- Strickland, C.(2001) The Annotated: A Crash Course in the History of Architecture. 양상현 등(역) 클릭, 서양건축사. 예경, 2001, pp. 144.
- Sullivan, M.(1996) The Arts of China. 김기주, 김경자(역), 중국미술사. 서울: 지식산업사, 1996. pp. 155.
- Tafuri, M.(1968) Teorie e storia dell' architettura. 김일현(역), 건축의 이론과 역사. 파주: 동녘, 2009. pp. 165-168.
- Tuan, Y. F.(1974) Topophilia. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
- Tuan, Y. F.(1977) Space and Place. Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 6.
- Wolfflin, H.(1915) Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe. Das Problem der Stilentwicklung in derneueren Kunst. Basel/Stuttgart: Schwabe & Co. 1979. 박지형(역) 미술사의 기초개념. 서울: 시공아트, 2009. pp. 308-315.
- Worringer, W.(1910) Abstraktion und Einfulung. 권원순(역), 추상과 감정이입. 대구: 계명대학교 출판부.
- Worringer, W.(1927) L'art gothique. Gallimard, pp. 61-115.
- Walpole, H.(1771) The History of the Modern Taste in Gardening, in Anecdotes of Painting in England. New York: Garland, 1982.
- Yu, M. H.(2004) A study on the embodiment of 'Active User' concept based on the 'Principles of Self-Organization'. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design 20(11): 59-68.
- Kim, J. S.(2010b) Realization of Relation-Oriented Architecture through Infrastructure Renewal. MS Dissertation. Kyonggi University, Korea.
- Kim, J. H. and J. S. Cho(1996) An essay on the picturesque and the landscape garden. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 24(2): 117-113.
- Kim, J. J.(2005b) A study on the concept and spatial organization of bifurcation. Journal of the Korean Institute of Interior Design 14(1): 20-27.
- Kim, J. S.(2015) The haptic perception aspect show in landscape architecture before modernism. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 43(4): 1-14.
- Kim, K. H.(2000, Sep) Architecture and Movement. ideal Architecture. pp. 156.
- Klonk, C.(1996) Science and the Perception of Nature: British Landscape Art in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
- Lee, M. J. and J. H. Pae(2012) An aesthetic interpretation of postindustrial parks with a perspective of the sublime. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 40(4): 78-89. https://doi.org/10.9715/KILA.2012.40.4.078
- Lee, T. H.(2009) A study of 'Raumplan' and 'Plan Libre' through the modern theories of tactile/haptic perception. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design 25(12): 221-230.
- Meyer, C. K.(1997) The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture. Ecoligical Design and Planning.
- Meyer, E.(1990) A convergence of 'Isms'. Landscape Architecture 80(9): 56.
- Pallasmaa, J.(2000) Hapticity and time: Note on fragile architecture. Architectural Review (1239): 79.
- Pallasmaa, J.(2012) The Eyes of the Skin:Architecture and the Senses, the third edition, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 김훈(역), 건축과 감각. 서울: Spacetime, 2013.
- Park, S. R.(2013) A Study on the Haptic-Visual Phenomena in Peter Zumthor's Architecture. MS Dissertation. Seoul National University, Korea.
- Ponty, M. M.(1964a) Le Visible et L' Invisible, texte etabli par Claude LEFORT, Paris, Gallimard.
- Ponty, M. M.(1964b) "The Film and the New Psychology" in Sene and Non-Sense, tran. by Hubert L. Dreyfus & Patricia Allen Dreyfus, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, pp. 48.
- Psarra, S.(2008) Architecture and Narrative: The Structure of Space and Cultural Meaning in Buildings. 조순익(역) 건축과 내러티브. 서울: 시공문화사, 2010. pp. 25-56.
- Quincy, Q.(1823) I'Essai sur lq natrure, le but et les moyens de l'imitation dans les beaux arts 1823, Jean-Claude Lebensztejn, De l'imiation dens les beaux arts, pp. 23. Re-quotes.
- Reimer, M. H.(2010) Unsettlingeco-scapes: Aesthetic performances for sustainable futures. Journal of Landscape Architecture 2010(Spring): 24-37.
- Kim, H. J.(2009) The modern spatial cognition of the landscape garden. Journal of Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society 10(4): 846-851. https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2009.10.4.846
- Beardsley, J.(1982) Traditional aspects of new land art. Art Journal 42(3): 229.
- Benjamin, W.(1968) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, in Hannah Arendt ed., Illuminations, Schoken Books, NY. (Originally written in 1936-1939) 최성만(역), 기술복제시대의예술작품. 서울: 도서출판 길, 2007.
- Anzai Shin-ichi(2000) イギリス風景式庭園の美學-開かれた庭のパラドックス. 東京大學出版會. 김용기.최종희(역) 신의 정원 에덴의 정치학. 성균관대학교 출판부, 2005.
- Arnheim, R.(1969) Visual Thinking. University of California Press.
- Buck-Morss, S.(1991) The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. MIT Press, 김정아(역), 발터 벤야민과 아케이드 프로젝트. 파주: 문학동네, 2004.
- Burke, E.(1757) A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. 김동훈(역), 숭고와아름다움의 이념의기원에 대한 철학적 탐구. 서울: 마티, 2006, pp. 197-204.
- Cornelis van de ven(1987) Space in Architecture, Van Gorcum, pp. 86.
- Deleuze, G.(1968) Francis Bacon: Logique de la sensation. Paris: Les editions de Seuil, 하태환(역), 감각의 논리. 서울: 믿음사, 2008.
- Deleuze, G. and F. Guattari(1980)Mille Plateaux: Capialisme et scbizophrerie, Paris: Les editions de Minuit , 김재인(역), 천개의 고원. 서울: 새물결, 2003. pp. 907-953.
- Deleuze, G.(1988) Le Pli, Leibniz et le Baroque. 이찬웅(역) 주름, 라이프니츠와 바로크. 서울: 문학과 지성사, 2004.
- Frankl. P.(1989) Principles of Architectural History. 김광현(역) 건축형태의 원리. 서울: 기문당, pp. 246-248.
- Gilloch, G.(1996) Myth and Metropolis: Walter Benjamin and the City. Polity Press, 노명우(역), 발터벤야민과메트로폴리스. 파주: 효형출판사, 2005.
- Hildebrand, A.(1918), Das Ploblem der Form in der Bildenden Kunst. Strassburg: Heitz, 조창섭(역), 조형미술의 형식. 서울: 믿음사, 1989.
- Hussey, C.(1927) The Picturesque. London: Chiswick Press. pp. 66.
- Hussey, C.(1967) English Gardens and Landscape. 1700-1750. NY: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 158.
- Hwang, J. Y.(2006) A study on the aspects of landscape painting in the landscape gardens by William Kent. Art History Forum 25: 225-251.
- Jang, I. Y.(2006) A Study on the Hybrid Tendency in the Contemporary Landscape Design. Ph.D. Dissertation. Cheongju University, Korea.
- Jang, Y. T. and Y. M. Koo(1998) A study on the design strategy of english landscape garden emerged in 18th century: Focused on relationships between 'The Picturesque' and 'Narrative'. Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design 18(2): 443-448.
- Kang, Y. J.(2003) 풍경에 다가서기. 파주: 효형출판, pp. 52-63.
- Kim, H. B.(1999) Styles and Vocabularies in Landscape design. In KILA, Landscape Design Theory(pp. 85-112). Seoul: Munundang.
- Kim, H. B.(2005a) Landscape Architecture History of Western: Landscape Architecture of Modern.Contemporary, Chapter 1 Landscape Garden of the British. Seoul, Korea: Munundang, pp. 266-274.
- Kim, H. H.(2010a) 철학 나그네. 고양시: 소나무, pp. 177.