Seasonal Variation of the Concentrations of Pinic Acid and cis-Pinonic Acid in the Atmosphere over Seoul

서울시 대기 중 Pinic Acid와 cis-Pinonic Acid의 계절별 농도 변화

  • Received : 2016.02.17
  • Accepted : 2016.04.07
  • Published : 2016.04.30


Pinic acid (PA) and cis-pinonic acid (CPA) in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal $10{\mu}m$ ($PM_{10}$) were analyzed for the samples collected during the period of April 2010 to April 2011 at Jongro in Seoul. Both pinic acid and cis-pinonic acid showed higher seasonal average concentrations in summer (PA; $18.9ng/m^3$, CPA; $16.0ng/m^3$) than winter (PA; $5.3ng/m^3$, CPA; $5.9ng/m^3$). They displayed a seasonal pattern associated with temperature reflecting the influence on emissions of ${\alpha}-pinene$ and ${\beta}-pinene$ from conifers and their photochemical reaction. These results were confirmed through Pearson correlation coefficient between CPA, PA and $O_3+NO_2$, temperature. CPA was only correlated with n-alkanes ($C_{29}$, $C_{31}$, $C_{33}$) from biogenic source. PA was correlated with n-alkanes ($C_{29}$, $C_{31}$, $C_{33}$), n-alkanoic acid ($C_{20}$, $C_{22}$, $C_{24}$) from biogenic source and n-alkanes ($C_{28}$, $C_{30}$, $C_{32}$), and n-alkanoic acid ($C_{16}$, $C_{18}$) from anthropogenic source. These results showed that the formation of PA and CPA from ${\alpha}-pinene$ and ${\beta}-pinene$ is related to organic compounds from biogenic source. And it is possible for PA to be effected by organic compounds from anthropogenic source.


Pinic acid;cis-Pinonic acid;Seasonal variation;Biogenic source;Seoul


  1. Ackerman, A.S., M.P. Kirkpatrick, D.E. Stevens, and O.B. Toon (2004) The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014-1017.
  2. Anttila, P., T. Rissanen, M. Shimmo, M. Kallio, T. Hyotylainen, M. Kulmala, and M.-L. Riekkola (2005) Organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from a finnish coniferous forest, Boreal Environ. Res., 10, 371-384.
  3. Cheng, Y., J.R. Brook, S.-M. Li, and A. Leithead (2011) Seasonal variation in the biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracer cis-pinonic acid: Enhancement due to emissions from regional and local biomass burning, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7105-7112.
  4. Cheng, Y., S.-M. Li, A. Leithead, P.C. Brickell, and W.R. Leaitch (2004) Characterizations of cis-pinonic acid and n-fatty acids on fine aerosols in the Lower Fraser Valley during Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5789-5800.
  5. Choi, N.R., S.P. Lee, J.Y. Lee, C.H. Jung, and Y.P. Kim (2016) Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM 10 over Seoul, South Korea, Chemosphere, 144, 1589-1596.
  6. Christoffersen, T., J. Hjorth, O. Horie, N. Jensen, D. Kotzias, L. Molander, P. Neeb, L. Ruppert, R. Winterhalter, and A. Virkkula (1998) cis-Pinic acid, a possible precursor for organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of ${\alpha}$-pinene, Atmos. Environ., 32, 1657-1661.
  7. Ding, X., X.-M. Wang, and M. Zheng (2011) The influence of temperature and aerosol acidity on biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers: Observations at a rural site in the central Pearl River Delta region, South China, Atmos. Environ., 45, 1303-1311.
  8. Fu, P., K. Kawamura, Y. Kanaya, and Z. Wang (2010) Contributions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to the formation of secondary organic aerosols over Mt. Tai, Central East China, Atmos. Environ., 44, 4817-4826.
  9. Hakola, H., J. Arey, S.M. Aschmann, and R. Atkinson (1994) Product formation from the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and $O_3$ with a series of monoterpenes, J. Atmos. Chem., 18, 75-102.
  10. Haque, M.M., K. Kawamura, and Y. Kim (2016) Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in ambient aerosols from Alaska, Atmos. Environ., 130, 95-104.
  11. Hyder, M., J. Genberg, M. Sandahl, E. Swietlicki, and J.a. Jonsson (2012) Yearly trend of dicarboxylic acids in organic aerosols from south of Sweden and source attribution, Atmos. Environ., 57, 197-204.
  12. Kavouras, I.G., N. Mihalopoulos, and E.G. Stephanou (1999) Formation and gas/particle partitioning of monoterpenes photo-oxidation products over forests, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 55-58.
  13. Kley, D., H. Geiss, and V.A. Mohnen (1994) Tropospheric ozone at elevated sites and precursor emissions in the United States and Europe, Atmos. Environ., 28, 149-158.
  14. Kroll, J.H. and J.H. Seinfeld (2008) Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: Formation and evolution of lowvolatility organics in the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 42, 3593-3624.
  15. Lamb, B., A. Guenther, D. Gay, and H. Westberg (1987) A national inventory of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions, Atmos. Environ., 21, 1695-1705.
  16. Loreto, F., P. Ciccioli, A. Cecinato, E. Brancaleoni, M. Frattoni, and D. Tricoli (1996) Influence of environmental factors and air composition on the emission of [alpha]-pinene from quercus ilex leaves, Plant Physiol., 110, 267-275.
  17. Medeiros, P.M., M.H. Conte, J.C. Weber, and B.R.T. Simoneit (2006) Sugars as source indicators of biogenic organic carbon in aerosols collected above the Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, Atmos. Environ., 40, 1694-1705.
  18. O'Dowd, C.D., P. Aalto, K. Hmeri, M. Kulmala, and T. Hoffmann (2002) Aerosol formation: Atmospheric particles from organic vapours, Nature, 416, 497-498.
  19. Oliveira, C., C. Pio, C. Alves, M. Evtyugina, P. Santos, V. Goncalves, T. Nunes, A.J.D. Silvestre, F. Palmgren, P. Wahlin, and S. Harrad (2007) Seasonal distribution of polar organic compounds in the urban atmosphere of two large cities from the North and South of Europe, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5555-5570.
  20. Pankow, J.F. (1994) An absorption model of the gas/aerosol partitioning involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 28, 189-193.
  21. Rogge, W.F., M.A. Mazurek, L.M. Hildemann, G.R. Cass, and B.R. Simoneit (1993) Quantification of urban organic aerosols at a molecular level: identification, abundance and seasonal variation, Atmos. Environ. Part A, 27, 1309-1330.
  22. Simoneit, B.R., J. Cardoso, and N. Robinson (1990) An assessment of the origin and composition of higher molecular weight organic matter in aerosols over Amazonia, Chemosphere, 21, 1285-1301.
  23. Yu, J., D.R. Cocker III, R.J. Griffin, R.C. Flagan, and J.H. Seinfeld (1999) Gas-phase ozone oxidation of monoterpenes: Gaseous and particulate products, J. Atmos. Chem., 34, 207-258.


Supported by : 한국연구재단, 기상청