Occurrence and Succession Pattern of Cyanobacteria in the Upper Region of the Nakdong River : Factors Influencing Aphanizomenon Bloom

낙동강 상류 수역에서 남조류 발생과 천이패턴 - Aphanizomenon 속을 중심으로 -

Ryu, Hui-Seong;Park, Hae-Kyung;Lee, Hae-Jin;Shin, Ra-Young;Cheon, Se-Uk

  • Received : 2015.11.24
  • Accepted : 2015.12.28
  • Published : 2016.01.30


This study investigated the occurrences and succession patterns of harmful cyanobacteria, as well as environmental factors, during a 3-year period (September 2012 to August 2015) in the upper region of the Nakdong River around Sangju weir. A total of 27 cyanobacterial taxa were observed in this study, and classified into 26 species and 1 variety belonging to 11 genera, 5 families, and 3 orders. Cell density ranged from 24 to 42,001 cells/ml, with a geometric mean of 33 cells/ml, during the survey period. The dominant orders differed depending on the survey year; order Oscillatoriales in 2013, Chroococcales in 2014 and Nostocales in 2015. An Aphanizomenon bloom occurred in June 2015 at which time the highest cell density of 36,873 cells/ml was detected in the upper region of the Nakdong River, where as the Aphanizomenon spp. cell density (190-1,704 cells/ml) had been low prior to that time. An Aphanizomenon bloom also occurred at around the same time downstream in the Young River, a major inflow branch of the Nakdong River. The Aphanizomenon cell density along the Nakdong River increased markedly after joining of the YoungRiver, indicating that the Aphanizomenon bloom in the YoungRiver caused a bloom in the Nakdong River. Meteorological and environmental parameters, such as very low precipitation, higher water temperature, pH, and TP concentration, and lower TN/TP ratio, in May and June of 2015 than in 2013 and 2014 exerted marked effects on the Aphanizomenon bloom in June 2015 in the Young River.


Aphanizomenon bloom;Cyanobacteria;Nakdong River;Nostocales


  1. Boayosef, Y., Sukenik, A., Hadas, O., Viner-Mozzini, Y., and Kaplan, A. (2010). Enslavement in the Water Body by Toxic Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, including Alkaline Phosphatase in Phytoplankotn, Current Biology, 20(17), pp. 1557-1661.
  2. Komárek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. (2005). Cyanoprokaryota 2. Teil/2nd Part: Oscillatoriales. In: Büdel, B., Krienitz, L., Gärtner, G. and M. Schagerl, (eds.) Süßwasserflora von Mutteleuropa, 19/2. Elsevier/Spektrum, Heidelberg, pp. 759.
  3. Hur, M. S., Lee, I. J., Tak, B. M., Lee, H. J., Yu, J. J., Cheon, S. U., and Kim, B. S. (2013). Temporal Shifts in Cyanobacterial Communities at Different Site on the Nakdong River in Korea, Water Research, 47(19), pp. 6973-6982.
  4. Juttner, F. and Watson, S. B. (2007). Biochemical and Ecological Control of Geosmin and 2-methylsoborneol in Source Waters, Apllied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(14), pp. 4395-4406.
  5. Komárek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. (1999). Cyanoprokaryota 1. Teil: Chroococcales, In: Ettl, H., G. Gärtner, H. Heying and D. Mollenhauer, (eds.), Süßwasserflora von Mutteleuropa, 19/1. Gustav Fisher, Jena-Stuttgart-Lübeck-Ulm, pp. 548.
  6. Komárek, J. and Komárková, J. (2006). Diversity of Aphanizomenon-like Cyanobacteria, Czech Phycology, Olomouc, 6, pp. 1-32.
  7. Korea Meterological Administration (KMA). (2015). Climate Information, (accessed Dec. 2015)
  8. K-water. (2015). Water Information, (accessed Dec. 2015).
  9. Lee, J. H., Kwon, J. N., and Yang, S. Y. (2002). Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton Community in the Naktong River, Algae, 17(4): 267-273. [Korean Literature]
  10. Lehman, E. M., Mcdonald, K. E., and Lehman, J. T. (2009). Whole Lake Selective Withdrawal Experiment to Control Harmful Cyanobacteria in an Urban Impoundment, Water Research, 43, pp. 1187-1198.
  11. Ministry Of Environment (MOE). (2015). Water Environment Information System (WEIS), (accessed Dec. 2015).
  12. Ma, H., Wu, Y., Gan, N., Zheng, L., Li, T., and Song, L. (2015). Growth Inhibitory Effect of Microcystis on Aphanizomenon flos-aquae isolated from cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Dianchi, China, Harmful Algae, 42, pp. 43-51.
  13. McDonald, K. E. and Lehman, J. T. (2013). Dynamics of Aphanizomenon and Microcystis (cyanobacteria) During Experimental Manipulation of an Urban Impoundment, Lake Reservoir Management, 29(2), pp. 272-276.
  14. Ministry of Environment (MOE). (2011). Standard Method for the Examination of Water Pollution, Ministry of Environment. [Korean Literature]
  15. Nakdong River Environment Research Center (NRERC). (2014). Aquatic Ecosystem Monitoring in Weir of the Nakdong River, Nakdong River Environment Research Center, pp. 33-50. [Korean Literature]
  16. National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR). (2012a). Algal Flora of Korea, Freshwater Cyanoprokaryota I, National Institute of Biological Resources.
  17. National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR). (2012b). Algal Flora of Korea, Freshwater Cyanoprokaryota II, National Institute of Biological Resources.
  18. Park, H. K., Lee, H. J., Kim, E. K., and Jung, D. I. (2005). Characteristics of Algal Abundance and Statistical Analysis of Environmental Factors in Lake Paldang, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 21(6), pp. 584-594. [Korean Literature]
  19. Park, H. K., Shin, R. Y., Lee, H. J., Lee, K. L., and Cheon, S. U. (2015). Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Cyanobacterial Communities in the Middle-downstream of Nakdong River and Lake Dukdong, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 31(3), pp. 286-294. [Korean Literature]
  20. Yamamoto, Y. and Nakahara, H. (2009). Life Cycle of Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Taiwania, 54(2), pp. 113-117.
  21. Pirjo, R., Hrouzek, P., Kaštovska, K., Willame, R., Rantala, A., Hoffmann, L., Komárek, J., and Sivonen, K. (2005). Phylogenetic and Morphological Evaluation of the Genera Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Trichormus and Nostoc (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria), International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55, pp. 11-26.
  22. Son, H. J. (2013). The Analysis of Phytoplankton Community Structure in the Middle-Lower Part of the Nakdong River, Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 35(6), pp. 430-435. [Korean Literature]
  23. Yamamoto, T. (2009). Environmental Factors that Determine the Occurrence and Seasonal Dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Journal of Limnology, 68(1), pp. 122-132.
  24. Yu, J. J., Lee, H. J., Lee, K. L., Lyu, H. S., Hwang, J. H., Shin, L. Y., and Chen, S. U. (2014). Relations between Distribution of the Dominant Phytoplankton Species and Water Temperature in the Nakdong River, Korea, Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment, 47(4), pp. 247-257. [Korean Literature]
  25. Zhang, D. L., Liu, S. Y., Zhang, J., Hu, C. X., Li, D. H., and Liu, Y. D. (2015). Antioxidative Reponses in Zebrafish Liver exposed to Sublethal Doses Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 Aphantoxins, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 113, pp. 425-432.

Cited by

  1. Morphology and taxonomy of the Aphanizomenon spp. (Cyanophyceae) and related species in the Nakdong River, South Korea vol.41, pp.1, 2017,
  2. Molecular Verification of Bloom-forming Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Their Secondary Metabolites in the Nakdong River vol.15, pp.8, 2018,
  3. Spatiotemporal and Longitudinal Variability of Hydro-meteorology, Basic Water Quality and Dominant Algal Assemblages in the Eight Weir Pools of Regulated River (Nakdong) vol.51, pp.4, 2018,
  4. The Change of Phytoplankton Community Structure and Water Quality in the Juksan Weir of the Yeongsan River Watershed vol.36, pp.4, 2018,