DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Influences of Environmental Conditions and Refractory Organic Matters on Organic Carbon Oxidation Rates Measured by a High Temperature Combustion and a UV-sulfate Methods

다양한 환경요인과 난분해성 유기물에 따른 고온산화 및 UV산화방식 총 유기탄소 산화율 변화

Jung, Heon-Jae;Lee, Bo-Mi;Lee, Keun-Heon;Shin, Hyun-Sang;Hur, Jin
정헌재;이보미;이근헌;신현상;허진

  • Received : 2015.12.01
  • Accepted : 2016.01.04
  • Published : 2016.01.30

Abstract

This study examined the effects of environmental conditions and the presence of refractory organic matter on oxidation rates of total organic carbon (TOC) measurements based on high temperature combustion and ultraviolet-sulfate methods. Spectroscopic indices for prediction of oxidation rates were also explored using the UV spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of humic acids. Furthermore, optimum TOC instrument conditions were suggested by comparing oxidation rates of a standard TOC material under various conditions. Environmental conditions included salts, reduced ions, and suspended solids. Salts had the greatest influence on oxidation rates in the UV-sulfate method. However, no effect was detected in the high temperature combustion method. The UV-sulfate method showed lower humic substance oxidation rates, refractory natural organic matter, compared to the other methods. TOC oxidation rates for the UV-sulfate method were negatively correlated with higher specific-UV absorbance, humification index, and humic-like EEM peak intensities, suggesting that these spectroscopic indices could be used to predict TOC oxidation rates. TOC signals from instruments using the UV-sulfate method increased with increasing chamber temperature and increasing UV exposure durations. Signals were more sensitive to the former condition, suggesting that chamber temperature is important for improving the TOC oxidation rates of refractory organic matter.

Keywords

Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM);Fluorescence;High temperature combustion;Spectroscopic indices;Total Organic Carbon (TOC);UV-persulfate

References

  1. Benner, R. and Hedges, J. I. (1993). A Test of the Accuracy of Freshwater DOC Measurements by High-Temperature Catalytic Oxidation and UV-Promoted Persulfate Oxidation, Marine Chemistry, 41(1), pp. 161-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(93)90114-4
  2. Aiken, G., Kaplan, L. A., and Weishaar, J. (2002). Assessment of Relative Accuracy in the Determination of Organic Matter Concentrations in Aquatic Systems, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4(1), pp. 70-74. https://doi.org/10.1039/b107322m
  3. Byun, J. D., Kim, T. D., Lee, S. K., Kim, H. O., and Kim, J. L. (2009). Comparison of Oxidation Methods in Analyzing Total Organic Carbon, Journal of the Korean Society for Environmental Analysis, 12(3), pp. 172-176. [Korean Literature]
  4. Capriati, A., Schiano, G., and Cosimo., L. (2013). Nitrate Removal from Service Station Wastewater Treatment, Water 21 (Magazine of International Water Association), 21(15.01), pp. 1-2.
  5. Chen, J., LeBoeuf, E. J., Dai, S., and Gu, B. (2003). Fluorescence Spectroscopic Studies of Natural Organic Matter Fractions, Chemosphere, 50(5), pp. 639-647. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00616-1
  6. Choi, D., Jung, J., Yoon, K., Lee, K., Choi, W., Lee, S., Park, H., Yim, B., and Hwang, T. (2012). Esimation of TOC Concentration Using BOD, COD in Runoff from Paddy Fields, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 28(6), pp. 813-818. [Korean Literature]
  7. Han, D. and Choi, J. Y. (2011). Selection of the Optimum Organic Matter Index for Surface Water Quality Management, Korea Environment Institute, 10(4), pp. 61-81. [Korean Literature]
  8. Choi, I. W., Kim, J. H., Im, J. K., Park, T. J., Kim, S. Y., Son, D. H., Huh, I. A., Rhew, D. H., and Yu, S. J. (2015). Application of TOC Standards for Managing Refractory Organic Compiunds in Industrial Wastewater, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 31(1), pp. 29-34. [Korean Literature] https://doi.org/10.15681/KSWE.2015.31.1.29
  9. Eaton, A. D., Clescerl, L. S., Rice, E. W., and Greenberg, A. E. (2005). Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater (21th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, pp. 5-21-5-25.
  10. Gusso-Choueri, P. K., Choueri, R. B., Lombardi, A. T., and Machado, E. C. (2011). The Dynamics of Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter in the Paranaguá Estuarine System, Southern Brazil, Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 59(4), pp. 311-326. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-87592011000400002
  11. Hertkorn, N., Claus, H., Schmitt-Kopplin, P. H., Perdue, E. M., and Filip, Z. (2002). Utilization and Transformation of Aquatic Humic Substances by Autochthonous Microorganisms, Environmental Science & Technology, 36(20), pp. 4334-4345. https://doi.org/10.1021/es010336o
  12. Hur, J., Shin, J. K., and Park, S. W. (2006). Characterizing Fluorescence Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter for Water Quality Management of Rivers and Lakes, Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 28(9), pp. 940-948. [Korean Literature]
  13. Jung, M., Hun, I., Lee, C., Shin, J., Kim, J., No, D., and Kim, Y. (2013). Organic Matter Characteristics of Industrial Wastewater According to Oxidation Rates of TOC Analyzer, Proceedings of the 2013 Co-Conference of the Korean Society on Water Environment and Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, Korean Society on Water Environment and Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, pp. 131-132. [Korean Literature]
  14. Lee, M. H. and Hur, J. (2014). Photodegradation‐Induced Changes in the Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter with Different Sources and Their Effects on Disinfection By Product Formation Potential, CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water, 42(5), pp. 552-560. https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201200685
  15. Kavurmaci, S. S. and Bekbolet, M. (2014). Tracing TiO2 Photocatalytic Degradation of Humic Acid in the Presence of Clay Particles by Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) Fluorescence Spectra, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 282, pp. 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2014.03.011
  16. Kim, H. S., Hong, J. J., Seong, J. U., Choi, K. S., and Park, J. C. (2013). Comparison of Organic Matter Distribution in Major Tributaries of the Nakdong River, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 29(5), pp. 618-624. [Korean Literature]
  17. Kim, J. K., Shin, M. S., Jang, C. W., Jung, S. M., and Kim, B. C. (2007). Comparison of TOC and DOC Distribution and th Oxidation Efficiency of BOD and COD in Several Resrvoir and Rivers in th Han River System, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 23(1), pp. 72-80. [Korean Literature]
  18. Lyu, J. H. and Lee, D. G. (2007). Inquiry of Water Environment in Mihocheon (Stream) -Water Quality Monitoring Focused on TOC-, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 23(5), pp. 731-739. [Korean Literature]
  19. Milori, D. M., Martin-Neto, L., Bayer, C., Mielniczuk, J., and Bagnato, V. S. (2002). Humification Degree of Soil Humic Acids Determined by Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Soil Science, 167(11), pp. 739-749. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-200211000-00004
  20. Ministry of Environment (MOE). (2013). Enforcement Decree of the Framework Act on Environmental Policy, Article 2, Presidential Decree No. 21621.
  21. Phong, D. D. and Hur, J. (2015). Insight into Photocatalytic Degradation of Dissolved Organic Matter in UVA/TiO2 Systems Revealed by Fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC, Water Research, 87, pp. 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.09.019
  22. Mori, M., Sugita, T., Mase, A., Funatogawa, T., Kikuchi, M., Aizawa, K., and Itabashi, H. (2013). Photodecomposition of Humic Acid and Natural Organic Matter in Swamp Water Using a TiO2-Coated Ceramic Foam Filter: Potential for the Formation of Disinfection Byproducts, Chemosphere, 90(4), pp. 1359-1365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.07.056
  23. Noh, D. H., Hong, S. Y., Jang, J. Y., and Park, J. C. (2007). A Study on the Quality Assurance Quality Control of the Quality of Water Monitering System -Focused on TOC-, Proceedings of the 2007 Co-Conference of the Korean Society on Water Environment and Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, Korean Society on Water Environment and Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, pp. 1049-1062. [Korean Literature]
  24. Park, M. H., Lee, B. M., Lee, T. H., Hur, J., and Yang, H. J. (2009). Effect of Humic Substances on the Changes of Dissolved Organiic Matter Characteristics by Biodegradation, Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment, 25(3), pp. 419-424. [Korean Literature]
  25. Rajca, M. and Bodzek, M. (2013). Kinetics of Fulvic and Humic Acids Photodegradation in Water Solutions, Separation and Purification Technology, 120, pp. 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.09.019
  26. Takagi, M. and Yoshida, T. (2006). Effect of Salt Concentration on Intracellular Accumulation of Lipids and Triacylglyceride in Marine Microalgae Dunaliella Cells, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101(3), pp. 223-226. https://doi.org/10.1263/jbb.101.223
  27. Verplanck, P. L., Taylor, H. E., Nordstrom, D. K., and Barber, L. B. (2005). Aqueous Stability of Gadolinium in Surface Waters Receiving Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent, Boulder Creek, Colorado, Environmental Science & Technology, 39(18), pp. 6923-6929. https://doi.org/10.1021/es048456u