Multilingual Automatic Translation Based on UNL: A Case Study for the Vietnamese Language

  • Thuyen, Phan Thi Le ;
  • Hung, Vo Trung
  • Received : 2016.02.17
  • Accepted : 2016.04.15
  • Published : 2016.04.30


In the field of natural language processing, Universal Networking Language (UNL) has been used by various researchers as an inter-lingual approach to automatic machine translation. The UNL system consists of two main components, namely, EnConverter for converting text from a source language to UNL, and DeConverter for converting from UNL to a target language. Currently, many projects are researching how to apply UNL to different languages. In this paper, we introduce the tools that are UNL's applications and discuss how to reuse them to encode a Vietnamese sentence into UNL expressions and decode UNL expressions into a Vietnamese sentence. The testing was done with about 1,000 Vietnamese sentences (a dictionary that includes 4573 entries and 3161 rules). In addition, we compare the proportion of sentences translated based on a direct method (Google Translator) and another one based on UNL.


Universal networking language (UNL);UNL system;IAN;EnCo;EUGENE;DeCo


  1. H. Uchida, "UNL: Universal Networking Language - An Electronic Language for Communication, Understanding, and Collaboration", UNU/IAS/UNL Center, Tokyo, Japan, 1996.
  2. S. Tripathi and J. K. Sarkhel, "Approaches to machine translation", Annals of Library and Information Studies, vol. 57, 2010, pages 388-393.
  3. P.T.L.Thuyen, V.T.Hung, "Expansion of UNL - Vietnamese dictionary on UNL explorer", Journal of Science and technology, The University of Danang. N.11(84), 2014.
  4. V. T. Hung and G. Fafiotte, "UVDict - a machine translation dictionary for Vietnamese language in UNL system", Proceeding CISIS 2011, Korean Bible University (KBU), Seoul, Korea, 2011, Pages: 1020-1028.
  5. V. T. Hung, "Reuse of Free Online MT Engines to Develop a Meta-system of Multilingual Machine Translation", EsTAL 2004, 2004.
  6. V. T. Hung, "Phuong phap va cong cu danh gia tu dong cac he thong dich tu dong tren mang", Tap chi Khoa hoc va Cong nghe Dai hoc Da Nang, so 1 (18), 2007, tr. 37-42.
  7. P. Kumar and R.K. Sharma, "Punjabi to UNL EnConversion System", Springer: Sadhna, Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences, volume 37:(2), pp. 299-318, 2012.
  8. P. Kumar and R.K. Sharma, "Punjabi DeConverter for generating Punjabi from Universal Networking Language", Journal of Zhejiang University - Science C 14(3): 179-196 (2013).
  9. UNL centre, "EnConverter Specifications. Version 3.3", 2002.
  10. UNL centre, "DeConverter Specifications. Version 2.7", 2002.

Cited by

  1. SANSUNL: A Sanskrit to UNL Enconverter System pp.0974-780X, 2018,