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과학관 놀이-학습 모형 개발

Development of a Play-Learning Model in Science Museum

  • 투고 : 2015.11.25
  • 심사 : 2016.03.10
  • 발행 : 2016.04.30

초록

본 연구에서는 과학관 교육의 목적인 교육하기, 참여하기, 즐기기를 추구하고 인지적 영역과 정의적 영역의 학습 효과를 향상시키기 위해서 과학관 학습 모형을 개발하였다. 모형을 개발하기 위하여 기존의 박물관 교육 모형을 '요인 중심 박물관 교육 모형'과 '과정 중심 박물관 교육 모형'으로 구분하여 고찰하고 과학관 교육의 특성화 방법을 고찰하였다. 선행 연구에 근거하여 과학관 학습 모형에서 전시물, 스캐폴딩과 소집단 내 상호작용, 놀이에 중점을 두었고, 개인적, 사회적, 물리적 요인을 포함하였으며, 각 요인들이 인지적, 정의적 영역에 영향을 줄 수 있다는 것을 고려하였다. 본 연구에서 개발한 과학관 학습 모형은 놀이에 중점을 두고 있는 점을 반영하여 '과학관 놀이-학습 모형'이라고 명명하였다. 이 모형은 '준비', '전시물 탐색', '체험', '정리'의 교수 학습 단계를 중심축으로 양쪽에 학생과 교사의 활동이 나타난 형태이다. '준비' 단계는 개인적, 물리적 요인을 고려하고, 학생은 관련 지식을 형성하며 놀이를 준비한다. '전시물 탐색' 단계는 개인적, 사회적 요인을 고려하고, 전시물, 스캐폴딩과 소집단 내 상호작용, 놀이가 집약된 이 모형의 핵심 단계이다. 이 단계는 학생들이 공동의 문제를 해결하기 위해 전시물을 탐색하는 과정으로 이러한 활동을 묶는 수단이 놀이이다. 학생들은 소집단으로 활동하며 상호작용을 통해 문제를 해결하고, 해결되지 않으면 교사의 도움을 받게 된다. '체험'과 '정리' 단계는 개인적 요인을 고려한 것인데, '체험' 단계에서는 '전시물 탐색' 단계의 활동과 연계된 조작적 활동을 하고, '정리' 단계에서는 놀이를 통해 학습 내용을 정리한다. 과학관 교육은 다양한 형태로 실행되므로 과학관 학습 모형에 대한 지속적인 연구와 다양한 교육 프로그램의 개발이 필요하다.

키워드

과학관 교육;과학관 학습 모형;놀이;스캐폴딩;전시물 기반

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