Study on Removal of Cesium in Water Treatment System

물속의 방사성핵종(세슘) 제거율 연구

  • Received : 2015.11.26
  • Accepted : 2016.01.20
  • Published : 2016.01.31


This study investigated the removal of a radioactive cesium ($Cs^+$) in the water at the water treatment processes. Since cesium is mostly present as the $Cs^+$ ion state in water, it is not removed by sand filtration, and coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl), powdered activated carbon (PAC) and mixture of PACl and PAC. However, it is known that the removal rate of cesium increases as the turbidity increases in raw water. As the turbidity was adjusted by 74 NTU and 103 NTU using the surrounding solids near G-water intake and yellow soils, removal rate of cesium was about 56% and 51%, respectively. In case of a GAC filtration with supernatants after jar-mixing/setting was conducted, 80% of cesium is approximately eliminated. The experimental results show that it is efficient to get rid of cesium when the turbidity of the raw water is more than 80 NTU. In case of a GAC filtration, about 60% of cesium is removed and it is considered by the effect of adsorption. Cesium is not eliminated by microfiltration membrane while about 75% of cesium is removed by reverse osmosis.


Cesium;Granular Activated Carbon;Turbidity;Reverse Osmotic Membrane


  1. Zhang, C. P., Gu, P., Zhao, J., Zhang, D. and Deng, Y., "Research on the treatment of liquid waste containing cesium by an adsorption-microfiltration process with potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate," J. Hazard. Mater., 167(1), 1057-1062 (2009).
  2. Gaur, S., "Determination of Cs-137 in environmental water by ion-exchange chromatography," J. Chromatogr., A 733 (1), 57-71(1996).
  3. Wong, C. T. and Mullins, J. W., "Part 7000, Radioactivity," Am. Water Works Assoc., 21st Ed., 7-24-7-29(2005).
  4. Goossens, R., Delville, A., Genot, J., Halleux, R. and Masschelein, W. J., "Removal of the typical isotopes of the chernobyl fall-out by conventional water treatment," Water Res., 23(6), 693-697(1989).
  5. Kosaka, K., Asami, M., Kobashigawa, N. and Ohkubo, K., "Removal of radioactive iodine and cesium in water purification processes after an explosion at a nuclear power plant due to the great japan Earthquake," Water Res., 46(14), 4397-4404(2012).
  6. Shakir, K., Sohsah, M. and Soliman, M., "Removal of cesium from aqueous solutions and radioactive waste simulants by coprecipitate flotation," Sep. Purific. Technol., 54(3), 373-381(2007).
  7. Morton, R. J. and Straub, C. P., "Removal of radionuclides from water by water treatment processes," J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 48(5), 545-558(1956).
  8. Kozai, N., Suzuki, S., Aoyagi, N., Sakamoto, F. and Ohnuki, T., "Radioactive fallout cesium in sewage sludge ash produced after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident," Water Res., 68, 616-626(2015).
  9. Gafvert, T., Ellmark, C. and Holm, E., "Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks," J. Environ. Radioact., 63(2), 105-115(2002).
  10. Soliman, M. A., Rashad, G. M. and Mahmoudb, M. R., "Fast and efficient cesium removal from simulated radioactive liquid waste by an isotope dilution-precipitate flotation process," Chem. Eng. J., 275, 342-350(2015).
  11. Kamaraj, R. and Vasudevan, S., "Evaluation of electro-coagulation process for the removal of strontium and cesium from aqueous solution," Chem. Eng. Res. Design, 93, 522-530 (2015).
  12. Cornell, R. M., "Adsorption of cesium on minerals : a review," J. Radio-analytical and Nuclear Chem., 171(2), 483-500(1993).
  13. Staunton, S., "Adsorption of radio-cesium on various soils : interpretation and consequences of the effects of soil: solution ratio and solution composition on the distribution coefficient," Eur. J. Soil Sci., 45, 409-418(1994).
  14. Kobayashi, U., Ohzeki, S., Souda, H. and Yamamoto, H., "Basic experiment on removal of radionuclides in water," J. Jpn. Water Works Assoc., 417, 389-395(1969).

Cited by

  1. Characteristics of Influence of Domestic Radioactivity due to the Accident in a Nuclear Power Plant in a Neighboring Country - Focus on river and dam basin - vol.40, pp.3, 2018,