Distribution Characteristics of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sediments inside Jeju Harbor

제주항내 퇴적물의 PCBs 분포특성

Heo, Ryun-Yong;Kam, Sang-Kyu;Cho, Eun-Il

  • Received : 2016.03.15
  • Accepted : 2016.04.27
  • Published : 2016.04.30


In this paper, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in surface sediments collected three times (June, October, December, 2013), inside Jeju Harbor as major harbors of Jeju Island. The concentration of PCBs inside Jeju Harbor was in the range of 1.62~4.45 (mean) ng/g on a dry weight basis and the levels were very low. In the analysis of PCBS homologue patterns, high-chlorinated PCB congeners were dominant in surface sediments inside Jeju Harbor, indicating that their sources were originated from shipping activity. In the relationships between PCBs concentrations and particle size (mud, sand and gravel) in surface sediments, PCBs concentrations were higher in the sediments with higher mud content, indicating that higher PCBs were distributed with increasing sediments of fine gradules. The PCBs concentrations in surface sediments in this study were very low, compared with ER-L (effect range-low) and TEL (threshold effects level) among sediment quality guideleines (SQGs) applied in foreign countries, such as USA, Canada, and Australia, etc), indicating that their biological effects on the bottom organisms in marine environment were expected to be very low.


Jeju Harbor;Sediment;PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls);Organic carbon;Particle size;Homologue


  1. ANZECC and ARMCANZ(2000), National water quality management strategy, Paper no. 4, Austrlian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality, vol. 1, The guidelines, Australia. Document; Available from:
  2. Bonifazi, P., E. Pierini and F. Bruner(1997), Solid phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic substances, Chromatographia, 44(11-12), pp. 595-600.
  3. Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J. M. Pacyna and K. C. Jones (2002), "Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners- a mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption", Sci. Total Environ., 290(1-3), pp. 199-224.
  4. Cardellicchio, N., A. Buccolieri, S. Giandomenico, L. Lopez, F. Pizzulli and L. Spada(2007), "Organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs) in sediments from the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy)", Marine Pollut. Bull., 55, pp. 451-458.
  5. CCME(1999), Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In: Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, MB.
  6. Dale, R. R., B. B. F. Andy, H. Corren, H. Dale, K. Katharine, B. Marlene, S. Terry, A. T. William, R. Henry, R. Eric and R. Liza(2004), "Concentrations of dioxine-like PCB congeners in unweathered Arochlors by HRGC/HRMS using EPA Method 1668A", Chemosphere, 54, pp. 79-87.
  7. Hong, S. H., U. H. Yim, W. J. Shim and J. R. Oh(2005), "Congener-specific survey for polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of industrialized bay in Korea: regional characteristics and pollution sources", Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, pp. 7380-7388.
  8. Hong, S. H., U. H. Yim, W. J. Shim, J. R. Oh and I. S. Lee(2003), "Horizontal and vertical distribution of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides from Masan Bay, Korea", Mar. Pollut. Bull., 46, pp. 244-253.
  9. Hong, S. H., U. H. Yim, W. J. Shim and J. R. Oh(2006), "Nationwide monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediments from coastal environment of Korea", Chemosphere., 64, pp. 479-488.
  10. Hutzinger, O., S. Safe and V. Ziko(1974), "Commercial PCB preparations: properties and composition", The Chemistry of PCBs, CRC Press, Ohio., pp. 7-39.
  11. Ingram, R. L.(1971), Sieve analysis, In Carver, R. E.(ed.), Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology, Wiley Interscience, Athens, GA, pp. 47-67.
  12. Jeong, G. H., H. J. Kim, Y. J. Joo, Y. B. Kim and H. Y. So(2001), "Distribution characteristics of PCBs in the sediments of the lower Nakdong River", Korea. Chemosphere., 44, pp. 1403-411.
  13. Kam, S. K., C. G. Hu and M. G. Lee(2011), "Contamination of butyltin compounds in sediments inside Jeju Harbor of Jeju Island", J. Environ. Sci., 20(5), pp. 611-655.
  14. Lee, K. T., S. Tanabe and C. H. Koh(2001), "Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from Kyeonggi bay and nearby areas, Korea", Marine Pollut. Bull., 42(4), pp. 273-279.
  15. Long, E. R. and L. G. Morgan(1990), "The potential for biological effects of sediment-sorbed contaminants tested in the National Status and Trends Program. NOAA Tech. Memo", NOS OMA 52. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, p. 175.
  16. MOF(2013), Minstry of Oceans and Fisheries, Standard Method of Examination for Maritime Environmental Pollutants, Korea.
  17. Moon, S. H., M. G. Lee and S. K. Kam(2003), "Distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments inside Hallim Harbor of Jeju Island", J. Environ. Sci., 12(11), pp. 1145-1157.
  18. Petersen-Bjergaard, S. and T. Greibrook(1996), "Comparison of GC-ECD, GC-MS and GC-AED for the determination of polychlorinated biphenys in highly contaminated marine sediments", Chromatographia., 43, pp. 44-52.
  19. Sloan, C. A., N. G. Adams, R. W. Pearce, D. W. Brown and S. L. Chan(1993), "Northwest Fisheries Science Center organic analytical procedures", NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA71-sampling and analytical methods of the national status and trends program national benthic surveillance and Mussel Watch Projects 1984-1992, Vol. IV, comprehensive description of trace organic analytical methods, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD, pp. 53-97.


Supported by : 제주대학교