Comparison of multifidus and external oblique abdominis activity in standing position according to the contraction patterns of the gluteus maximus

  • Choi, Hyuk-Soon ;
  • Lee, Su-Young
  • Received : 2016.02.16
  • Accepted : 2016.03.17
  • Published : 2016.03.30


Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect on multifidus and external oblique abdominis muscle activation during hip contraction of three types (concentric, isometric, eccentric) in standing position. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Twenty healthy adult men volunteered to participate in this study. Muscle activation was recorded from gluteus maximus, both multifidus, and both external oblique abdominis by surface electromyography (EMG) while holding position in the type of gluteus maximus contraction. EMG values were normalized by maximum muscle contractions (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction). All subjects performed hip extension with three contraction methods. The type of gluteus maximus contraction using Thera-band was composed of concentric contraction (type 1), isometric contraction (type 2), and eccentric contraction (type 3). To measure muscle activation on the gluteus maximus contraction type, each position were maintained for 5 seconds with data collection taken place during middle three seconds. Muscle activation was measured in each position three times. Results: For the results of this study, there was no significant difference within three contraction patterns of the gluteus maximus (concentric, isometric, and eccentric) each both multifidus, both external oblique abdominis, and gluteus maximus. And there was no significant difference among both multifidus, both external oblique abdominis, and gluteus maximus each hip extension contraction type. Conclusions: These findings suggest that specific contraction types of the gluteus maximus does not lead to a more effective activation of the multifidus, external oblique abdominis, and gluteus maximus.


Abdominal muscles;Electromyography;Paraspinal muscles


  1. Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al; COST B13 Working Group on Guidelines for Chronic Low Back Pain. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 2:S192-300.
  2. Wallden M. The neutral spine principle. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2009;13:350-61.
  3. Kim K, Park RJ, Bae SS. Effect of diaphragmatic breathing exercise on activation of trunk muscle of patients with Low back pain. J Korean Soc Phys Ther 2005;17:311-27.
  4. Lee JY, Han SY, Nam HW, Chung B, Lee CR, Han SW. Comparison of hip internal rotation angle in chronic low back pain patients according to the gender. J Korean CHUNA Man Med Spine Nerves 2010;5:9-16.
  5. Danneels LA, Vanderstraeten GG, Cambier DC, Witvrouw EE, De Cuyper HJ. CT imaging of trunk muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects. Eur Spine J 2000;9: 266-72.
  6. Graves JE, Webb DC, Pollock M, Matkozich J, Leggett SH, Carpenter DM, et al. Pelvic stabilization during resistance training: its effect on the development of lumbar extension strength. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:210-5.
  7. Shin MH. The effect of yoga activities in different temperature environments on spine muscles, pelvic bone asymmetry and plasma components in middle-aged women with chronic back pain [Doctor dissertation]. Jeonju: Woosuk University; 2014.
  8. Lee SC, Lee DT. Effects of exercise therapy on lower back pain patients. Health Sport Med 2007;9:69-78.
  9. Hicks GE, Fritz JM, Delitto A, McGill SM. Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization exercise program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1753-62.
  10. Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Andersen CH, Jay K, Andersen LL. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2012;7:372-80.
  11. Wilke HJ, Neef P, Caimi M, Hoogland T, Claes LE. New in vivo measurements of pressures in the intervertebral disc in daily life. Spine 1999;24:755-762.
  12. Johanson E, Brumagne S, Janssens L, Pijnenburg M, Claeys K, Paasuke M. The effect of acute back muscle fatigue on postural control strategy in people with and without recurrent low back pain. Eur Spine J 2011;20:2152-59.
  13. Kay D, St Clair Gibson A, Mitchell MJ, Lambert MI, Noakes TD. Different neuromuscular recruitment patterns during eccentric, concentric and isometric contractions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2000;10:425-31.
  14. Clark MA, Lucett SC. NASM essentials of corrective exercise training. 1st ed. Philadelphia; Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. p. 290-315.
  15. Neumann DA. Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundation for physical rehabilitation. St Louis: Mosby; 2002. p. 480-521.
  16. Gibbons SGT, Mottram SL. Functional anatomy of gluteus maximus: deep sacral gluteus maximus-a new muscle? Paper presented at: The 5th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back Pain; 2004 Nov 7-11; Melbourne, Australia. p. 7-11.
  17. Jang SY, Lee SY. A comparison of vital capacity values and respiratory muscles activities on pelvic tilt position. Phys Ther Rehail Sci 2015;4:108-14.
  18. Bohannon RW, Kindig J, Sabo G, Duni AE, Cram P. Isometric knee extension force measured using a handheld dynamometer with and without belt-stabilization. Physiother Theory Pract 2012;28:562-8.
  19. Hislop HJ, Avers D, Brown M. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle testing. 9th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Inc; 2013. p. 212-20.
  20. Brotzman SB, Manske RC. Clinical orthopaedic rehabilitation: An evidence-based approach. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Inc.; 2011. p. 467-91.
  21. Wilke HJ, Wolf S, Claes LE, Arand M, Wiesend A. Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups: a biomechanical in vitro study. Spine 1995;20:192-8.
  22. Cermak NM, Snijders T, McKay BR, Parise G, Verdijk LB, Tamopolsky MA, et al. Eccentric exercise increases satellite cell content in type II muscle fibers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013;45: 230-7.
  23. Westing SH, Seger JY, Thorstensson A. Effects of electrical stimulation on eccentric and concentric torque-velocity relationships during knee extension in man. Acta Physiol Scand 1990;140: 17-22.
  24. Linnamo V. Motor unit activation and force production during eccentric, concentric and isometric actions [Academic dissertation]. Jyvaskylan yliopisto, Finland: University of Jyvaskyla; 2002.
  25. Souza GM, Baker LL, Powers CM. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during dynamic spine stabilization exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1551-7.
  26. Choi HS, Kwon OY, Yi CH, Jeon HS, Oh JS. The comparison of trunk muscle activities during sling and mat exercise. Phys Ther Kor 2005;12:1-10.
  27. Bae JH, Na JK, Yu JY, Park YO. Atrophy of multifidus muscle on low back pain patients. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med 2001;25: 684-91.
  28. Hides JA, Stokes MJ, Saide M, Jull GA, Cooper DH. Evidence of lumbar multifidus muscle wasting ipsilateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. Spine 1994;19:165-72.
  29. Richardson C, Jull G, Hodes P, Hides J. Therapeutic exercises for spinal segmental stabilization in low back pain: scientific basis and clinical approach. 2nd ed. Edinburg: Churchill Livingstone; 2004. p. 13-20.