The Water Soluble Ionic Composition of PM2.5 at 1,100 m-Highland of Mt. Hallasan on Jeju Island, Korea

한라산 1,100 m 지역의 대기 중 PM2.5의 수용성 이온 조성

  • Received : 2016.03.07
  • Accepted : 2016.04.20
  • Published : 2016.05.31


The ambient mass concentration and chemical composition of the $PM_{2.5}$ were determined at the highland site with 1,100 m above sea level on Jeju Island from June 2013 to November 2014. Yearly averaged mass concentration of $PM_{2.5}$ was $11.97{\pm}8.63{\mu}g/m^3$. $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations were highest during the spring, while they tended to be lowest during the summer. Eight water soluble ionic species attributed 45.5% to $PM_{2.5}$ mass. $SO{_4}^{2-}$, $NO_3{^-}$ and $NH_4{^+}$ were major ions, which occupied to 27.9%, 3.7% and 12.3%, respectively. The greatest contributors to total mass concentration of water-soluble ions contained in $PM_{2.5}$ were sulfate, ammonium and nitrate. These three ions accounted for 96.6% in total ions mass concentration of $PM_{2.5}$. We could infer that these three secondary ions exist mostly in the form of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ and $NH_4NO_3$. $Ca^{2+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ had a good relationship and with r=0.9. The molar ratio of $Mg^{2+}/Ca^{2+}$ in this study was lower than the value observed in sea water and higher than that in soil dust, indicating that these two ions originated from other sources rather than ocean and soil dust in this study.


$PM_{2.5}$;Water-soluble ions;1,100 m-highland;Jeju island


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