- Volume 16 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Dead-Time for Zero-Voltage-Switching in Battery Chargers with the Phase-Shifted Full-Bridge Topology: Comprehensive Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Verification
Zhang, Taizhi;Fu, Junyu;Qian, Qinsong;Sun, Weifeng;Lu, Shengli
- Received : 2015.04.16
- Accepted : 2015.10.11
- Published : 2016.03.20
This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical analysis and an accurate calculation method of the dead-time required to achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) in a battery charger with the phase-shifted full-bridge (PSFB) topology. Compared to previous studies, this is the first time that the effects of nonlinear output filter inductance, varied Miller Plateau length, and blocking capacitors have been considered. It has been found that the output filter inductance and the Miller Plateau have a significant influence on the dead-time for ZVS when the load current varies a lot in battery charger applications. In addition, the blocking capacitor, which is widely used to prevent saturation, reduces the circulating current and consequently affects the setting of the dead-time. In consideration of these effects, accurate analytical equations of the dead-time range for ZVS are deduced. Experimental results from a 1.5kW PSFB battery charger prototype shows that, with the proposed analysis, an optimal dead-time can be selected to meet the specific requirements of a system while achieving ZVS over wide load range.
Battery charger;Dead-time;Phase-shifted full-bridge (PSFB);Zero-voltage-switching
- B. Gu, C.-Y. Lin, and B. Chen, “Zero-voltage-switching PWM resonant full-bridge converter with minimized circulating losses and minimal voltage stresses of bridge rectifiers for electric vehicle battery chargers,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 4657-4667, Oct. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2233762
- Y.-C. Hsieh and C.-S. Huang, “Li-ion battery charger based on digitally controlled phase-shifted full-bridge converter,” IET Power Electronics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 242-247, Feb. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-pel.2009.0206
- T.-H. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and W. Choi, "Design and control of the phase shift full bridge converter for the on-board battery charger of electric forklifts," in IEEE 8th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia(ICPE & ECCE), pp. 2709-2716, May/Jun. 2011.
- P. K. Jain, W. Kang, H. Soin, and Y. Xi, “Analysis and design considerations of a load and line independent zero voltage switching full bridge dc/dc converter topology,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 649-657, Sep. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2002.802181
- Y. Jang, M. M. Jovanovic, and Y. M. Chang, “A new ZVS-PWM full-bridge converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 1122-1129, Sep. 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2003.816189
- D.-Y. Lee, B.-H. Cho, and J.-H. Park, “A novel soft-switching full-bridge PWM converter with an energy recovery circuit,” Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 9, No.5, pp. 809-821, Sep. 2009.
- X. Wu, J. Zhang, X. Xie, and Z. Qian, “Analysis and optimal design considerations for an improved full bridge ZVS dc-dc converter with high efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 1225-1234, Sep. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2006.880348
- W. Chen, X. B. Ruan, and R. Zhang, “A novel zero-voltage-switching PWM full bridge converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 793-801, Mar. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2007.915764
- W. Chen, X. B. Ruan, Q. Chen, and J. Ge, “Zero-voltage-switching PWM full-bridge converter employing auxiliary transformer to reset the clamping diode current,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 1149-1162, May 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2038698
- Y.-C. Lee, H.-K. Kim, J.-H. Kim, and S.-S. Hong, “A study on implementing a phase-shift full-bridge converter employing an asynchronous active clamp circuit,” Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.413-420, May 2014. https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2014.14.3.413
- M. Boarage, S. Tiwari, S. Bhardwaj, and S. Kotaiah, “A full-bridge DC-DC converter with zero-voltage-switching over the entire conversion ranges,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 1743-1750, Jul. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2008.925203
- J. Li, Z Chen, Z. Shen, and P. Mattavelli, "An adaptive dead-time control scheme for high-switching-frequency dualactive bridge converter," in 27th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition(APEC), pp. 1355-1361, Feb. 2012.
- X. M. Jiang, X. L. Zhu, G. Q. Chen, Y. N. Rui, and K. Q. Liu, "Application of dynamic dead time control in high frequency & voltage power supply," in International Conference on Energy and Environment Technology, pp. 81-84, Oct. 2009.
- A. F. Bakan, N. Altintas, and I. Aksoy, “An improved PSFB PWM DC-DC converter for high-power and frequency applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 64-74, Jan. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2196287
- Z. Emami, M. Nikpendar, N. Shafiei, and S. R. Motahari, "Leading and lagging legs power loss analysis in ZVS phase-shift full bridge converter," in Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference(PEDSTC), pp. 632-637, Feb. 2011.
- M. Hallworth, A. B. Potter, and S. A. Shirsavar, “Analytical calculation of resonant inductance for zero voltage switching in phase-shifted full-bridge converters,” IET Power Electronics, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 523-534, Mar. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-pel.2012.0461
- D.-Y. Kim, C.-E. Kim, and G.-W. Moon, “Variable delay time method in the phase-shifted full-bridge converter for reduced power consumption under light load conditions,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 28, No. 11, pp. 5120-5127, Nov. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2013.2237926
- Z. Q. Guo, D. S. Sha, X. Z. Liao, and J. K. Luo, “Input-series-output-parallel phase-shift full-bridge derived DC–DC converters with auxiliary LC networks to achieve wide zero-voltage switching range,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 29, No. 10, pp. 5081-5086, Oct. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2014.2309342
- J. B. Wang, R. Li, and J. Chen, "Efficiency comparison of the full bridge converters in considered magnetic saturation," in 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, pp.717-722, Nov. 2008.
- International Recitfier, http://www.irf.com/product-info/datasheets/data/irfps30n60k.pdf, Aug. 2004.
- L. Balogh, "Design and application guide for high speed MOSFET gate drive circuits," Power Supply Design Seminar SEM-1400, Topic 2, Texas Instruments Literature, 2001.
- C. Wang, Y. Tan, J. Xu, and Q. Zhang, "A novel zero-current technique for high power full bridge DC-DC converter," in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Vol. 2, pp. 1042-1045, Aug./Sep. 1998.
- X. B. Ruan and Y. G. Yan, “A novel zero-voltage and zero-current-switching PWM full-bridge converter using two diodes in series with the lagging leg,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 777-785, Aug. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1109/41.937410
- Design and Implementation of a High-Efficiency Multiple Output Charger Based on the Time-Division Multiple Control Technique vol.32, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2016.2551723