Single-Phase Inverter for Grid-Connected and Intentional Islanding Operations in Electric Utility Systems

Lidozzi, Alessandro;Lo Calzo, Giovanni;Solero, Luca;Crescimbini, Fabio

  • 투고 : 2015.04.22
  • 심사 : 2015.09.22
  • 발행 : 2016.03.20


Small distributed generation units are usually connected to the main electric grid through single-phase voltage source inverters. Grid operating conditions such as voltage and frequency are not constant and can fluctuate within the range values established by international standards. Furthermore, the requirements in terms of power factor correction, total harmonic distortion, and reliability are getting tighter day by day. As a result, the implementation of reliable and efficient control algorithms, which are able to adjust their control parameters in response to changeable grid operating conditions, is essential. This paper investigates the configuration topology and control algorithm of a single-phase inverter with the purpose of achieving high performance in terms of efficiency as well as total harmonic distortion of the output current. Accordingly, a Second Order Generalized Integrator with a suitable Phase Locked Loop (SOGI-PLL) is the basis of the proposed current and voltage regulation. Some practical issues related to the control algorithm are addressed, and a solution for the control architecture is proposed, based on resonant controllers that are continuously tuned on the basis of the actual grid frequency. Further, intentional islanding operation is investigated and a possible procedure for switching from grid-tied to islanding operation and vice-versa is proposed.


Distributed power generation;Intentional islanding operation;Single-phase inverters;SOGI-PLL;Tuned resonant controller


  1. P. Mattavelli, “Synchronous-frame harmonic control for high-performance AC power supplies,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 864-872, May/Jun. 2012.
  2. P. Fairley, “The greening of GE [alternative energy],” IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 28-33, Jul. 2005.
  3. R. C. Dugan, T. S. Key, and G. J. Ball, “Distributed resources standards,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 27-34, Jan./Feb. 2006.
  4. A. Lidozzi, G. L. Calzo, L. Solero, and F. Crescimbini, “Integral-resonant control for stand-alone voltage source inverters,” IET Power Electronics, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 271-278, Feb. 2014.
  5. G. L. Calzo, A. Lidozzi, L. Solero, and F. Crescimbini, “LC filter design for on-grid and off-grid distributed generating units,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 1639-1650, Mar./Apr. 2015.
  6. C.-X. Dou, B. Liu, and D. J. Hill, “Hybrid control for high-penetration distribution grid based on operational mode conversion,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 7, No. 7, pp. 700-708, Jul. 2013.
  7. R. Guillaume, T.-U. Tuan, and H. Nouredine, "Fuzzy logic supervision and control of distributed generators," in 18th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, pp. 1-5, Jun. 2005.
  8. J. Rodriguez, S. Bernet, P. K. Steimer, and I. E. Lizama, “A survey on neutral-point-clamped inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 7, pp. 2219-2230, Jul. 2010.
  9. J. M. Bloemink and T.C. Green, "Reducing passive filter sizes with tuned traps for distribution level power electronics," in Proc. European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications(EPE 2011), pp. 1-9, Aug./Sep. 2011.
  10. L. D'Errico, A. Lidozzi, and L. Solero, “Neutral point clamped converter for high fundamental frequency applications,” IET Power Electronics, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 296-308, Mar. 2011.
  11. K. Jalili and S. Bernet, “Design of LCL filters of active-front-end two-level voltage-source converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 1674-1689, May 2009.
  12. W. Wu, Y. He, and F. Blaabjerg, “An LLCL power filter for single-phase grid-tied inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 782-789, Feb. 2012.
  13. R. P. Stratford, “Rectifier harmonics in power systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. IA-16, No. 2, pp. 271-276, Mar. 1980.
  14. Y. Patel, D. Pixler, and A. Nasiri, "Analysis and design of TRAP and LCL filters for active switching converters," in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics(ISIE), pp. 638-643, Jul. 2010.
  15. A. Timbus, M. Liserre, R. Teodorescu, P. Rodriguez, and F. Blaabjerg, “Evaluation of current controllers for distributed power generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 654-664, Mar. 2009.
  16. R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, M. Liserre, and P. C. Loh, "Proportional-resonant controllers and filters for grid-connected voltage-source converters," in IEE Proc. Electric Power Applications, Vol. 153, No. 5, pp. 750-762, Sep. 2006.
  17. D. N. Zmood and D.G. Holmes, “Stationary frame current regulation of PWM inverters with zero steady-state error,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 814-822, May 2003.
  18. S. Golestan, M. Monfared, F. D. Freijedo, and J. M. Guerrero, “Dynamics assessment of advanced single-phase PLL structures,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 6, pp. 2167-2177, Jun. 2013.
  19. S. Guo and D. Liu, "Rotating transformation and resonant control based feedback control strategy for dynamic voltage restorer system," in 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems(PEDG), pp. 333-338, Jun. 2010.
  20. A. Vidal, F. D. Freijedo, A. G. Yepes, P. F. Comesana, J. Malvar, O. Lopez, and J. D. Gandoy, “Assessment and optimization of the transient response of proportional-resonant current controllers for distributed power generation system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 1367-1383, Apr. 2013.
  21. M. Ciobotaru, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg, "A new single-phase PLL structure based on second order generalized integrator," in Power Electronics Specialists Conference(PESC), pp. 1- 6, Jun. 2006.
  22. F. J. Rodriguez, E. Bueno, M. Aredes, L. G. B. Rolim, F. A. S. Neves, and M. C. Cavalcanti, "Discrete-time implementation of second order generalized integrators for grid converters," in 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics(IECON), pp. 176-181, Nov. 2008.
  23. A. Nagliero, R. A. Mastromauro, M. Liserre, and A. Dell'Aquila, "Monitoring and synchronization techniques for single-phase PV systems," in International Symposium on Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion(SPEEDAM), pp. 1404-1409, Jun. 2010.
  24. S. Bifaretti, A. Lidozzi, L. Solero, and F. Crescimbini, “Anti-islanding detector based on a robust PLL,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 398-405, Jan./Feb. 2015.
  25. M. Liserre, A. Pigazo, A. Dell'Aquila, and V. M. Moreno, “An anti-islanding method for single-phase inverters based on a grid voltage sensorless control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 1418-1426, Oct. 2006.
  26. R. S. Kunte and W. Gao, "Comparison and review of islanding detection techniques for distributed energy resources," in 40th North American Power Symposium, pp. 1-8, Sep. 2008.
  27. T. Funabashi, K. Koyanagi, and R. Yokoyama, "A review of islanding detection methods for distributed resources," in IEEE Power Tech Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, pp. 23-26 Jun. 2003.
  28. E. J. Estébanez, V. M. Moreno, A. Pigazo, M. Liserre, and A. Dell'Aquila, “Performance evaluation of active islanding-detection algorithms in distributed-generation photovoltaic systems: Two Inverters Case,”IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 1185-1193, Apr. 2011.
  29. M. Ciobotaru, V. G. Agelidis, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg, “Accurate and less-disturbing active anti-islanding method based on PLL for grid-connected converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 1576-1584, Jun. 2010.
  30. F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, “Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 1398-1409, Oct. 2006.
  31. S.-K. Kim, J.-H. Jeon, J.-B. Ahn, B. Lee, and S.-H. Kwon, “Frequency-shift acceleration control for anti-islanding of a distributed-generation inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 494-504, Feb. 2010.
  32. B. Yu, Y. Jung, J. So, H. Hwang, and G. Yu, "A robust anti-islanding method for grid-connected photovoltaic inverter," in 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vol. 2, pp. 2242-2245, May 2006.
  33. I. J. Balaguer, Q. Lei, S. Yang, U. Supatti, and F. Z. Peng, “Control for grid-connected and intentional islanding operations of distributed power generation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 147-157, Jan. 2011.

피인용 문헌

  1. Stability Analysis of Current Control based on Virtual Resistor for Single-Phase Grid Converters with LLCL Input Filters vol.21, pp.5, 2016,