- Volume 10 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Seismic response and retrofitting proposals of the St. Titus Chruch, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
- Tzanakis, Michael J. ;
- Papagiannopoulos, George A. ;
- Hatzigeorgiou, George D.
- Received : 2015.05.26
- Accepted : 2016.04.25
- Published : 2016.06.25
The purpose of this work is to investigate the seismic behavior of St. Titus Church in Heraklion, Crete, Greece as well as the need of its seismic retrofitting. A numerical model of the Church is constructed using shell finite elements and it is then seismically examined using response spectrum and linear time-history analyses. Effects of soil-structure interaction have been also taken into account. The Church without retrofit is expected to exhibit extensive tensile failures and many compressive ones. Aiming to maintain the architectural character of the structure as well as to increase its seismic resistance, a retrofitting procedure involving injection of cement grout in conjunction with reinforced concrete jacketing to the internal side of the masonry walls is proposed. A numerical implementation of the proposed seismic retrofitting is performed and its effect is evaluated by response spectrum and linear time-history analyses. From the results of these analyses, it is shown that compressive failures are eliminated while only few tensile failures of local character take place.
seismic response;masonry;retrofitting;response spectrum;time-history
- Arede, A., Costa, A., Moreira, D. and Neves, N. (2012), "Seismic analysis and strengthening of Pico Island Churches", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 10(1), 181-209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-011-9325-8
- Arvanitaki, A. and Voyadjis, S. (2012), "The Pantokrator Gate of the Venetian walls of Heracleion, Krete", Proceedings of the 3rd Pan-Hellenic Conference on Restoration, Athens, Greece.
- Beskos, D.E. (1993), "Use of finite and boundary elements in the analysis of monuments and special structures", Bull. Greek Assoc. Civ. Eng. Greece, 216, 31-43. (in Greek)
- Beskos, D.E. (1994), "Use of finite and boundary elements in the analysis of monuments and special structures", Bull. Greek Assoc. Civ. Eng. Greece, 217, 15-32. (in Greek)
- Betti, M. and Galano, L. (2012), "Seismic analysis of historic masonry buildings: The Vicarious Palace in Pescia (Italy)", Buildings, 2(2), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings2020063
- Betti, M., Bartoli, G. and Orlando, M. (2010), "Evaluation study on structural fault of a Renaissance Italian palace", Eng. Struct., 32(7), 1801-1813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.03.001
- Bull, J.W. (2001), Computational modeling of masonry, brickwork and blockwork structures, Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirling, United Kingdom.
- COSMOS (1999), Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems - Strong motion virtual data center (VDC), http://www.strongmotioncenter.org/vdc/scripts/earthquakes.plx.
- EC6 (2009), Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures, Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures, European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels.
- EC8 (2009), Eurocode 8 - Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings, European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels.
- Elmenshawi, A., Sorour, M., Mufti, A., Jaeger, L. and Shrive, N. (2010), "Damping mechanisms and damping ratios in vibrating unreinforced stone masonry", Eng. Struct., 32(10), 3269-3278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.06.016
- Krzan, M., Gostic, S., Cattari, S. and Bosiljkov, V. (2015), "Acquiring reference parameters of masonry for the structural performance analysis of historical buildings", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 13(1), 203-236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-014-9686-x
- Meli, R. and Pena, F. (2004), "On elastic models for evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of masonry churches", Structural analysis of historical constructions, eds., Modena, Lourenco and Roca, 1121-1131, Taylor and Francis, London.
- Modena, C., Zavarise, G. and Valluzzi, M.R. (1997), "Modelling of stone masonry walls strengthened by RC jackets", Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Structural Masonry, 285-292, Florence, Italy.
- Mulliken S. and Karabalis, D.L. (1998), "Discrete model for dynamic through-the-soil coupling of 3-D foundations and structures", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 27(7), 687-710. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199807)27:7<687::AID-EQE752>3.0.CO;2-O
- Pagnini, L.C., Vicente R., Lagomarsino, S. and Varum, H. (2011), "A mechanical model for the seismic vulnerability assessment of old masonry buildings", Earthq. Struct., 2(1), 25-42. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2011.2.1.025
- Papazachos, V.K. and Papazachou, K. (2004), The earthquakes of Greece, Ziti Publications, Thessaloniki, Greece.
- Penazzi, D., Valluzzi, M.R., Saisi, A., Binda, L. and Modena, C. (2001), "Repair and strengthening of historic masonry buildings in seismic areas", Proceedings of the International Congress: More than two thousand years in the history of architecture safeguarding the structure of our architectural heritage, 1-6, Bethlehem, Palestine.
- Roca, P., Gonzalez, J.L., Mari, A.R. and Onate, E. (1997), Structural analysis of historical constructions, - Possibilities of numerical and experimental techniques, Barcelona, Spain.
- SAP 2000 (2010), Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Structures, Version 14.2.0, Computers and Structures, Berkeley, California, USA.
- Tomazevic, M and Apih, V. (1993), "The strengthening of stone masonry walls by injecting the masonry friendly grouts", Eur. Earthq. Eng., 7, 10-20, Patron, Bologna, Italy.
- Tomazevic, M. (1999), Earthquake-Resistant design of masonry buildings, Imperial College Press, London.
- Triantafillou, T.C. and Fardis, M.N. (1997), "Strengthening of historic masonry structures with composite materials", Mater. Struct., 30(8), 486-496. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02524777
- Tsapanos, T.M. (2003), "A seismic hazard scenario for the main cities of Crete island, Greece", Geophys. J. Int., 153(2), 403-408. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01874.x
- Vasilakis, M., Vasilakis, N. and Papadrakakis, M. (1979), Report on the static behavior of the St. Titus dome, Report in Greek submitted to the Technical Chamber of Greece, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
- Window opening effects on structural behavior of historical masonry Fatih Mosque pp.1558-3066, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2018.1447617