Inhibitory Effects of Spinach, Cabbage, and Onion Extracts on Growth of Cancer Cells

시금치, 양배추, 양파 추출물의 암세포 증식 억제 효과

  • Lee, Hae-Nim (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Shin, Seong-Ah (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Choo, Gang-Sik (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyeong-Jin (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Park, Young-Seok (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Ki (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Jung, Ji-Youn (Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University)
  • 이해님 (공주대학교 특수동물학과) ;
  • 신성아 (공주대학교 특수동물학과) ;
  • 추강식 (공주대학교 특수동물학과) ;
  • 김형진 (공주대학교 특수동물학과) ;
  • 박영석 (공주대학교 특수동물학과) ;
  • 김상기 (공주대학교 특수동물학과) ;
  • 정지윤 (공주대학교 특수동물학과)
  • Received : 2015.12.28
  • Accepted : 2016.02.26
  • Published : 2016.05.31


Extracts from spinach, cabbage, and onion are known to possess various instructive characteristics, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. Spinach, cabbage, and onion are consumed worldwide and represent important sources of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Food-derived flavonoids and phenolic compounds are expected to be promising drugs for cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of methanol extracts of spinach, cabbage, and onion on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric and breast cancer cells. Proliferation rates of AGS, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The methanol extracts of spinach, cabbage, and onion inhibited proliferation of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining revealed that chromatin condensation significantly increased compared with the control. In the results of MTT assay and DAPI staining, onion extract was the most effective in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. To assess changes in protein expression level by onion extract, we identified Bax (pro-apoptotic), Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein by western blot analysis. The expression of Bax and cleaved-PARP increased, whereas expression of Bcl-2 was decreased compared with the control. These results suggest that spinach, cabbage, and onion extracts suppressed growth of human gastric cancer AGS, human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 cells through induction of apoptosis. Among the extracts, onion extract had stronger anti-cancer and apoptosis induction effects than spinach and cabbage extracts. Further, onion extract more effectively induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells than human breast cancer cells. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the anti-cancer effects of onion extracts in vivo. Onion extract can be developed as a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for gastric cancer.

본 연구에서는 메탄올로 추출한 시금치, 양배추, 양파 추출물의 인간 위암세포 AGS와 인간 유방암세포 MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 암세포에서의 세포 증식 억제 효과와 apoptosis 유도 효과에 대하여 비교 조사하였다. AGS, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 암세포에 시금치, 양배추, 양파 추출물을 0, 50, 100, $200{\mu}g/mL$로 24시간 동안 처리한 뒤 MTT assay를 통하여 세포 생존율을 측정한 결과 암세포 생존율이 농도 의존적으로 감소하였다. 이러한 시금치, 양배추, 양파 추출물의 암세포 증식 억제 효과가 apoptosis에 의해 유도되는지 확인하기 위해 AGS, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 암세포에 각 추출물을 0, $200{\mu}g/mL$로 24시간 동안 처리한 후 DAPI staining을 수행한 결과 apoptotic body와 염색질 응축이 추출물 처리군에서 증가하였다. MTT assay와 DAPI staining 결과 암세포 증식 억제 효과 및 apoptosis 유도효과가 가장 우수했던 양파 추출물에 의한 apoptosis 관련 단백질들의 변화 양상을 확인하기 위해 western blotting을 수행하였다. AGS, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 암세포에 양파 추출물을 0, $200{\mu}g/mL$로 24시간 동안 처리한 뒤 western blotting을 수행한 결과 pro-apoptotic 인자인 Bax 발현은 증가하였으며 PARP 단백질의 분절 또한 증가한 것을 확인하였다. 반면 anti-apoptotic 인자인 Bcl-2의 발현은 감소하였다. 이러한 결과들을 종합하였을 때 시금치, 양배추, 양파 추출물은 인간 위암세포인 AGS, 인간 유방암세포인 MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3에서 apoptosis 유도를 통해 암세포 성장을 억제하는 것으로 생각한다. 그중 양파 추출물의 효과가 가장 우수했으며 유방암세포보다 위암세포에서의 apoptosis 유도 효과가 뛰어났다. 따라서 양파의 섭취는 위암의 예방 및 치료를 위한 치료제로의 개발 가능성이 우수함을 제시하며 추후 지속적인 연구를 통하여 in vivo에서의 양파 추출물의 항암 효과에 대한 연구가 이루어져야 할 것으로 생각한다.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


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