Finding Hazard Factors by New Risks on Maritime Safety in Korea

Park, Deuk-Jin;Park, Seong-Bug;Yang, Hyeong-Sun;Yim, Jeong-Bin

  • Received : 2016.05.02
  • Accepted : 2016.05.27
  • Published : 2016.05.31


The key features of maritime accidents are the change of their attributes by new risks from time to time. To prevent maritime accidents in Korea, the impacts by new risks on domestic safety environments should be identified or predicted. The purpose of this paper is to find the hazard factors by new risks on maritime safety in Korea. The meaning of new risks is the elements of accident hazard which is compiled from new or rare or unprecedented events in the worldwide maritime transportations. The problems of new risks are the lacks of optimum countermeasures to mitigate accident risks. Using the questionnaires with 152 event scenarios classified by 20 accident causes, the hazard identification and risk analysis of new risks was performed based on the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by IMO. A total of 22 Influence Diagrams, which is to depict the transit flows between accident causes to consequences, is used in the construction of 152 event scenarios. A total of 20 accidents causes is the same contents as the causation factors represented in Statistical Year Book for Maritime Accidents of Korean Maritime Safety Tribunals. After defining the evaluation equations to the response results of questionnaires by 46 experts, the work for risk analysis is carried out. As results from the analysis of 152 scenarios, it is known that the root cause to affect on maritime safety in Korea is the pressure of business competition and it led to the lacks of well experienced crews, the overload of vessel operations and crew's fatigue. In addition, as results from the analysis of 20 accident causes, the three accident causes are to be candidate as main issues in Korea such as the inadequate preparedness of departure, the neglecting of watch keeping in bridge and the inadequate management of ship operations. All of the results are thought to be as basic hazard factors to safety impediments. It is thus found that the optimum Risk Control Options to remove the hazard factors and to mitigate consequences required are the following two factors: business competition and crewing problems.


Maritime accident;Safety;Risk;Hazard;Risk assessment;FSA;Risk control options


  1. Allianz(2012), Safety and Shipping 1912 - 2012 - From Titanic to Costa Concordia, An insurer's perspective from Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS), pp. 1-33.
  2. Allianz(2013), Safety and Shipping Review 2013, Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS), pp. 1-23.
  3. Allianz(2014), Safety and Shipping Review 2014, Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS), pp. 1-32.
  4. Allianz(2015), Safety and Shipping Review 2015, Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS), pp. 1-36.
  5. Hightower, M., L. Gritzo, A. M. Luketa, J. Covan, S. Tieszen, G. Wellman, M. Irwin, M. Kaneshige, B. Melof, C. Morrow, and D. Ragland(2004), Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water, SANDIA REPORT SAND 2004-6258, pp. 1-167.
  6. Hightower, M.(2013), Risk Mitigation of LNG Ship Damage from Large Spills, 17th International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG 17), pp. 1-17.
  7. IMO(2001), Formal Safety Assessment, Report on the Joint MSC/MEPC Working Group on the Human Element and Formal Safety Assessment, MSC 74/WP.19, 5 June 2001.
  8. Van Drop, J. R., J. R. W. Merrick, J. R. Harrald, T. A. Mazzuchi and M. Grabowski(2001), A Risk Management Procedure for the Washington state Ferries, Risk analysis, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 127-142.
  9. KMOA(2010a), Job Work Conscious of Crew Members in a Merchant Ship (I) (Comparing 1993/2009), Korea Marine Officers' Associations, Yonmoon C&P, pp. 1-354.
  10. KMOA(2010b), Job Work Conscious of Crew Members in a Merchant Ship (II), Korea Marine Officers' Associations, Yonmoon C&P, pp. 1-822.
  11. KMOA(2012a), Life Conscious of Crew Members in a Multi-cultural Merchant Ship, Korea Marine Officers' Associations, Yonmoon C&P, pp. 1-310.
  12. KMOA(2012b), Life Conscious to Family of Crew Members, Korea Marine Officers' Associations, Yonmoon C&P, pp. 1-310.
  13. KMST(2014), Korean Maritime Safety Tribunals, Statistical Year Book for Maritime Accidents, pp. 1-118.
  14. Luketa, A. M. and M. Hightower(2006), Guidance on Safety and Risk Management of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water, U.S. Department of Energy LNG Forums 2006, Sandia National Laboratories, pp. 1-14.
  15. Luketa, A. M., M. Hightower and S. Attaway(2008), Breach and Safety Analysis of Spills Over Water from Large Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers, Sandia Report SAN2008-3153, pp. 1-34.
  16. Park, D. J., H. H. Lee, D. B. Kim and J. B. Yim(2015a), A Study on the Newly Created Marine Risk Assessment Method, The Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety, Spring Seminar 2016, p. 89.
  17. Park, S. B., J. Y. Jeong and J. B. Yim(2015b), Review on the Identification and Evaluation on Unrecognized Risks for Passenger Shps, Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research, Autumn Seminar 2015, pp. 190-192.
  18. Yim, J. B., H. S. Yang and S. B. Park(2015), Review on the Unrecognized Risk Identification and Evaluations in the Maritime Transportation Area, Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research, Autumn Seminar 2015, pp. 187-189.
  19. Yim, J. B., H. S. Yang, W. J. Yang, J. Y. Jeong, D. B. Kim and H. H. Lee(2015), Human Error Model with Concept for the Situation Awareness, Proceedings of ANC 2015 (CD Version), pp. 394-400.
  20. Yim, J. B., W. J Yang and H. T. Kim(2014), Marine Accident Analysis - A Guiide to Analysis, Evaluation, Prediction and Management of Marine Accidents in the Maritime Transportation -, Jeilgihyok, ISBN 978-89-97005-42-0, pp. 1-392.


Grant : A fundamental research on maritime accident prevention - phase 2

Supported by : Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea