A Numerical Study on the Effects of Maneuverability of Ship with Low Forward Speed by Increasing Rudder Force

타력 증대가 저속 운항 선박의 조종성능에 미치는 영향에 관한 수치적 연구

Kim, Hyun-Jun;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Dong-Young;Kim, In-Tae;Han, Ji-Soo

  • Received : 2015.12.14
  • Accepted : 2016.06.03
  • Published : 2016.06.20


Recent accidents of crude oil tankers have resulted in sinking, grounding of vessels and significant levels of marine pollution. Therefore, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been strengthening the regulations of ship maneuvering performance in MSC 137. The evaluation of maneuvering performance can be made at the early design stage; it can be investigated numerically or experimentally. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the maneuvering performance of a VLCC due to the increase of rudder force at an early design stage for low speed in shallow water conditions. It was simulated in various operating condition such as deep sea, shallow water, design speed and low speed by using the numerical maneuvering simulation model, developed using MMG maneuvering motion equation and KVLCC 2 (SIMMAN 2008 workshop). The effect of increasing the rudder force can be evaluated by using numerical simulation of turning test and ZIG-ZAG test. The research showed that, increasing the rudder force of a VLCC was more effective on improving the turning ability than improving the course changing ability especially. The improvement of turning ability by the rudder force increasing is most effective when the ship is sailing in shallow water at low forward speed.


Maneuvering;Rudder force;Shallow-water;MMG model;Turning ability;Yaw checking ability;numerical simulation


  1. Abkowitz M.A., 1980, Measurement of Hydrodynamic Characteristics from Ship Maneuvring Trials by System Identification, SNAME Transactions, Vol.99
  2. Ankudinov, K., 1990, Manoeuvring performance of tug/barge assemblies in restricted waterways, Proceedings MARSIM & ICSM 90, Tokyo
  3. Katsuro Kijima., et, al, 1990, On the Manoeuvring Performance of a Ship with the Parameter of Loading Conditions, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 168, pp. 141-148
  4. Kijima, K., et al., 1990, Prediction methods of ship manoeuvrability in deep and shallow water, Proceedings MARSIM & ICSM 90, Tokyo
  5. Kim, S.W., 2006, On the mathematical model of a manoeuvring ship with a slow forward speed in shallow waters, Seoul National University, Master's Thesis
  6. Kobayashi, E., 1995, The development of practical simulation system to evaluate ship maneuverability in shallow water, PRADS, Seoul
  7. Lee, H.Y., et al., 2001 , Maneuvering Performance of a Ship with Flap Rudder, Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environmental Engineering, 4(1), pp 70-74.
  8. Nomoto K., et. al., 1957, On the Steering Qualities of Ships, International Shipbuilding Progress, 4(35).
  9. Sheng, Z., 1981, Contribution to the discussion of the manoeuvrability committee report, 16th ITTC Proceedings.
  10. Sohn, K., H., 1992, Hydrodynamic Forces and Maneuvering Characteristics of Ships at Low Advance Speed, Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 29(3), pp 90-101.
  11. Sohn, K.H. Lee, K.W., et. al., 1997, A Study on the Effect of Rudder Area with Reference to Changes in Span Distance on Course Stability of a Ship, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea , 3(16), pp 1-14.
  12. Takashina, J., 1986, Ship Maneuvering Motion due to Tugboats and Its Mathematical Model, J.S.N.A. Japan
  13. Yasukawa, 1988, Computation of effective rudder forces of a ship in shallow water, MAN 98, France.
  14. Oltmann, P., 1984, Simulation of combined engine and rudder maneuvers using and improved of hull-propeller-rudder interactions, 15th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics.
  15. Yasukawa, 1988, Comutation of effective rudder forces of a ship in shallow water, MAN 98, France.
  16. Yeun, S.M., 2005, Optimal input design for the identification of low-speed manoeuvring equations of motion, Seoul National University, master's thesis.
  17. Yoo, Y.J., 2000, An experimental research on the maneuvring derivates of a twin screw ferry for berthing and unberthing, Seoul National University, Doctor's Thesis.
  18. Yoon., H., G., 2005, A Study on the Model Test Scheme for Establishing the Mathematical Model, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 42(2), pp. 98-104.
  19. Yoshimura, Y., 1988, Mathematical Model for the Manoeuvring Ship Motion in Shallow Water-Mathematical Model at Slow forward Speed, Journal of Kansai Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 210, pp. 77-84
  20. Kim, S.Y, Kim, Y.G, 2008, Prediction of maneuvering performance for KVLCC1 & KVLCC2 based on PMM data, Simman 2008, pp. E22