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Cinnamaldehyde Attenuates Cataractogenesis via Restoration of Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive rats

  • Singh, Amrita (Department of Pharmacology, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University)) ;
  • Ahmad Khan, Samsroz (Department of Pharmacology, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University)) ;
  • Choudhary, Rajesh (Department of Pharmacology, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University)) ;
  • Bodakhe, Surendra Haribhau (Department of Pharmacology, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University))
  • Received : 2016.04.04
  • Accepted : 2016.05.25
  • Published : 2016.06.30

Abstract

Objectives: Several studies have revealed that systemic hypertension is strongly associated with cataractogenesis. However, the pathophysiology and treatment is often unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cataractogenic effect of cinnamaldehyde (CA), a natural organic compound, in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Methods: The rats were divided into six groups. For six weeks, the normal group received a suspension of 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (10 mL/kg/day, p.o.) while five other groups received a 10% (w/v) fructose solution in their drinking water to induce hypertension. By the end of the third week hypertension had been induced in all the animals receiving fructose. From the beginning of the fourth week to the end of the sixth week, one of those five groups (control) continued to receive only 10% (w/v) fructose solution, one group (standard) received ramipril (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) plus 10% (w/v) fructose solution, and three groups (experimental) received CA at doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day p.o., plus 10% (w/v) fructose solution. Blood pressure was measured weekly using a non-invasive blood pressure apparatus. After six weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the anti-cataractogenic effects on the eye lenses were evaluated. Results: Administration of fructose elevated both the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures, which were significantly reduced by CA at all dose levels. In the control group, a significant increase in the malonaldehyde (MDA) level and decreases in the total protein, $Ca^{2+}$adenosine triphosphate (ATP)ase activity, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels, as compared to the normal group, were observed. Administration of CA at all doses significantly restored the enzymatic, non-enzymatic, antioxidants, total protein, and $Ca^{2+}$ATPase levels, but decreased the MDA level, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study revealed that CA modulated the antioxidant parameters of the serum and lens homogenates in hypertension-induced cataractogenic animals.

Keywords

cataract;cinnamaldehyde;fructose;hypertension;oxidative stress

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