DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Enhanced Production of Phenolic Compounds from Pumpkin Leaves by Subcritical Water Hydrolysis

  • Received : 2016.02.03
  • Accepted : 2016.04.21
  • Published : 2016.06.30

Abstract

Enhanced production of individual phenolic compounds by subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) of pumpkin leaves was investigated at various temperatures ranging from 100 to $220^{\circ}C$ at 20 min and at various reaction times ranging from 10 to 50 min at $160^{\circ}C$. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gentisic acid were the major phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate of pumpkin leaves. All phenolic compounds except gentisic acid showed the highest yield at $160^{\circ}C$, but gentisic acid showed the highest yield at $180^{\circ}C$. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds gradually increased by 48.1, 52.2, and $78.4{\mu}g/g$ dry matter at $100^{\circ}C$, $120^{\circ}C$, and $140^{\circ}C$, respectively, and then greatly increased by $1,477.1{\mu}g/g$ dry matter at $160^{\circ}C$. The yields of caffeic acid and ferulic acid showed peaks at 20 min, while those of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and procatechuic acid showed peaks at 30 min. Antioxidant activities such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power values gradually increased with hydrolysis temperature and ranged from 6.77 to 12.42 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry matter and from 4.25 to 8.92 mmol $Fe^{2+}$/100 g dry matter, respectively. Color $L^*$ and $b^*$ values gradually decreased as hydrolysis temperature increased from $100^{\circ}C$ to $140^{\circ}C$. At high temperatures ($160^{\circ}C$ to $220^{\circ}C$), L* and b* values decreased suddenly. The $a^*$ value peaked at $160^{\circ}C$ and then decreased as temperature increased from $160^{\circ}C$ to $220^{\circ}C$. These results suggest that SWH of pumpkin leaves was strongly influenced by hydrolysis temperature and may enhanced the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

Keywords

pumpkin leaves;subcritical water hydrolysis;phenolic compounds;antioxidant activity

References

  1. Mukhopadhyay S, Luthria DL, Robbins RJ. 2006. Optimization of extraction process for phenolic acids from black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) by pressurized liquid extraction. J Sci Food Agric 86: 156-162. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2326
  2. Chiou A, Karathanos VT, Mylona A, Salta FN, Preventi F, Andrikopoulos NK. 2007. Currants (Vitis vinifera L.) content of simple phenolics and antioxidant activity. Food Chem 102: 516-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.009
  3. Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth MW, Biesalski HK, Vadivel V. 2012. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients. LWT-Food Sci Technol 45: 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.08.006
  4. Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. 2006. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem 99: 191-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.042
  5. Wiczkowski W, Romaszko J, Bucinski A, Szawara-Nowak D, Honke J, Zielinski H, Piskula MK. 2008. Quercetin from shallots (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) is more bioavailable than its glucosides. J Nutr 138: 885-888. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/138.5.885
  6. Kuhnau J. 1976. The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet 24: 117-191. https://doi.org/10.1159/000399407
  7. Amashukeli X, Pelletier CC, Kirby JP, Grunthaner FJ. 2007. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Atacama Desert soils. J Geophys Res 112: doi: 10.1029/2006JG000308. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000308
  8. Shitu A, Izhar S, Tahir TM. 2015. Sub-critical water as a green solvent for production of valuable materials from agricultural waste biomass: a review of recent work. Global J Environ Sci Manage 1: 255-264.
  9. Plaza M, Turner C. 2015. Pressurized hot water extraction of bioactives. Trends Anal Chem 71: 39-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2015.02.022
  10. Kim SR, Ha TY, Song HN, Kim YS, Park YK. 2005. Comparison of nutritional composition and antioxidative activity for Kabocha squash and pumpkin. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37: 171-177.
  11. Que F, Mao L, Fang X, Wu T. 2008. Comparison of hot airdrying and freeze-drying on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) flours. Int J Food Sci Technol 43: 1195-1201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01590.x
  12. Lee HJ, Do JR, Kwon JH, Kim HK. 2010. Physiological activities of Cucurbita moschata Duch. extracts with different extraction conditions. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 165-171. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.2.165
  13. Valenzuela GM, Soro AS, Tauguinas AL, Gruszycki MR, Cravzov AL, Gimenez MC, Wirth A. 2014. Evaluation polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Cucurbita spp. Open Access Library J 1: 1-6.
  14. Cha YY. 2009. Experimental study on effects of Cucurbita moschata Duch. on antioxidation. J Korean Med Obes Res 9: 57-63.
  15. Kim MJ, Hong CO, Nam MH, Lee KW. 2011. Antioxidant effects and physiological activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) extract from different aerial parts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 43: 195-199. https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.2.195
  16. Kim MB, Park JS, Lim SB. 2010. Antioxidant activity and cell toxicity of pressurised liquid extracts from 20 selected plant species in Jeju, Korea. Food Chem 122: 546-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.007
  17. Kamiloglu S, Pasli AA, Ozcelik B, Van Camp J, Capanoglu E. 2015. Colour retention, anthocyanin stability and antioxidant capacity in black carrot (Daucus carota) jams and marmalades: Effect of processing, storage conditions and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. J Funct Foods 13: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.021
  18. Kriengsak T, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne DH. 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Compos Anal 19: 669-675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.01.003
  19. Ko MJ, Cheigh CI, Cho SW, Chung MS. 2011. Subcritical water extraction of flavonol quercetin from onion skin. J Food Eng 102: 327-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.09.008
  20. Singh PP, Saldana MDA. 2011. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from potato peel. Food Res Int 44: 2452-2458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.006
  21. Cheigh CI, Chung EY, Chung MY. 2012. Enhanced extraction of flavanones hesperidin and narirutin from Citrus unshiu peel using subcritical water. J Food Eng 110: 472-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.12.019
  22. Khuwijitjaru P, Plernjit J, Suaylam B, Samuhaseneetoo S, Pongsawatmanit R, Adachi S. 2014. Degradation kinetics of some phenolic compounds in subcritical water and radical scavenging activity of their degradation products. Can J Chem Eng 92: 810-815. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.21898
  23. Vergara-Salinas JR, Bulnes P, Zuniga MC, Perez-Jimenez J, Torres JL, Mateos-Martin ML, Agosin E, Perez-Correa JR. 2013. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 61: 6929-6936. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf4010143
  24. Rangsriwong P, Rangkadilok N, Satayavivad J, Goto M, Shotipruk A. 2009. Subcritical water extraction of polyphenolic compounds from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits. Sep Purif Technol 66: 51-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2008.11.023
  25. Khuwijitjaru P, Sayputikasikorn N, Samuhasaneetoo S, Penroj P, Siriwongwilaichat P, Adachi S. 2012. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). J Oleo Sci 61: 349-355. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.61.349
  26. Watchararuji K, Goto M, Sasaki M, Shotipruk A. 2008. Value-added subcritical water hydrolysate from rice bran and soybean meal. Bioresour Technol 99: 6207-6213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.021

Cited by

  1. Food waste: a potential bioresource for extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds vol.4, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643-017-0148-6