Influences of Different Dietary Lipid Sources on the Growth, Body Composition, and Fatty Acid Profiles of Juvenile Fancy Carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi

사료 지질원이 비단잉어(Cyprinus carpio var. koi) 치어의 성장 및 체조성에 미치는 영향

Kim, Yi-Oh;Lee, Sang-Min

  • Received : 2016.02.05
  • Accepted : 2016.04.05
  • Published : 2016.06.30


This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, body composition, and fatty acid profiles of juvenile fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi). Three replicate groups of fish (initial mean body weight, 15.1±0.18 g) were fed one of five experimental diets containing fish oil (SLO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), lard (LA), or a mixture of SLO, SO, and LO (Mix) for 8 weeks. Fish fed the LA diet gained less weight than did fish fed the LO diet. The feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the LA and Mix diets were lower than those of fish fed the SO and LO diets. The body lipid content of fish fed the SO diet was lower than those of the other groups. Whole-body fatty acid compositions reflected the fatty acid compositions of dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the SO diet had high concentrations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, whereas fish fed the LO diet were rich in linolenic acid. Fish fed the SLO diet had significantly higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid compared with fish fed the SO, LO, and LA diets. The results of this study suggest that SO or LO could be used as a replacement for SLO in the diets of juvenile fancy carp without any negative effects on growth and feed utilization when the dietary essential fatty acid requirements are satisfied for juvenile fancy carp.


Fancy carp;Dietary lipid source;Fatty acids;Cyprinus carpio var. koi


  1. Alfin-Slater RB and Aftergood L. 1968. Essential fatty acids reinvestigated. Phys Rev 48, 758-784.
  2. Aminikhoei Z, Choi J, Lee SM and Kim KD. 2013. Effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzyme activity of juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. J World Aquacult Soc 44, 716-725.
  3. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  4. Baud I, Oudinet JP, Bens M, Noe L, Peraldi MN, Rondeau E, Etienne J and Ardaillou R. 1989. Production of tumor necrosis factor by rat mesangial cells in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Kidney Int 35, 1111-1118.
  5. Castell JD, Sinnhuber RO, Wales JH and Lee DJ. 1972. Essential fatty acids in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): growth, feed conversion and some gross deficiency symptoms. J Nutr 102, 77-86.
  6. Bell JG, McGhee F, Campbell PJ and Sargent JR. 2003. Rapeseed oil as an alternative to marine fish oil in diets of postsmolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: changes in flesh fatty acid composition and effectiveness of subsequent fish oil “wash out”. Aquaculture 218, 515-528.
  7. Bell MV, Henderson RJ, Pirie BJS and Sargent JR. 1985. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies on mortality, growth and gill structure in the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. J Fish Biol 26, 181-191.
  8. Burr GO and Burr MM. 1930. On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition. J Biol Chem 86, 587-621.
  9. Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11, 1-42.
  10. Folch J, Lees M and Stanley GHS. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497-509.
  11. Fujii M, Nakayama H and Yone Y. 1976. Effect of ω3 fatty acids on growth, feed efficiency and fatty acid composition of red sea bream (Chrysophrys major). Report of Fishery Research Laboratory, Kyushu Univ 3, 65-86.
  12. German JB, Lokesh B and Kinsella JE. 1987. Modulation of zymosan stimulated leukotriene release by dietary unsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med 30, 69-76.
  13. Hancz C, Magyary I, Molnar T, Sato S, Horn P and Taniguchi N. 2003. Evaluation of color intensity enhanced by paprika as feed additive in goldfish and koi carp using computer-assisted image analysis. Fish Sci 69, 1158-1161.
  14. Kanazawa AS, Teshima M, Sakamoto and MA Awal, 1980. Requirement of Tilapia zilli for essential fatty acids. Fish Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 46, 1353-1356.
  15. Holman RT. 1968. Essential fatty acid deficiency, a long scaly tale. Prog Chem Fats Other Lipids 9, 279-348.
  16. Kaley G, Hintze TH, Panzenbeck M and Messina EJ. 1985. Role of prostaglandins in microcirculatory function. In: Serneri GGN, McGiff JC, Paoletti R and Born (Eds) GVR, Advances in prostaglandin, thromboxane, and leukotriene research, Vol 13. Raven Press, New York, U.S.A., 27-35.
  17. Kalogeropoulos N, Alexis MN and Henderson RJ. 1992. Effect of dietary soybean and cod-liver oil levels on growth and body composition of gilthead bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 104, 293-308.
  18. Kanazawa A, Teshima SI and Sakamoto M. 1982. Requirements of essential fatty acids for larval ayu. Fish Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 48, 587-590.
  19. Kim KD, Lee SM, Park HG, Bai SC and Lee YH. 2002. Essentiality of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. J World Aquacult Soc 33, 432-440.
  20. Kim DK, Kim KD, Seo JY and SM Lee. 2012. Effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 25, 869-879.
  21. Lee SM. 2001. Review of the lipid and essential fatty acid requirements of rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Aquac Res 32, 8-17.
  22. Maroussem DD, Pippy B, Beraud M, Derache P and Matieu JR. 1985. [1-14C] Arachidonic acid incorporation into glycerolipid and prostaglandin synthesis in peritoneal macrophage: effect of chloramphenicol. Biochim Biophys Acta 834, 8-22.
  23. Sargent JR, Bell JG, McEvoy LA, Tocher D and Estevez A. 1999. Recent developments in the essential fatty acid nutrition of fish. Aquaculture 177, 191-199.
  24. Lokesh BR, Black JM and Kinsella JE. 1989. The suppression of eicosanoid synthesis by peritoneal macrophages is influenced by the ratio of dietary docosahexaenoic acid to linoleic acid. Lipids 24, 389-593.
  25. NRC (National Research Council), 1993. Nutrient requirements of fish. National Academy Press, Washington DC, U.S.A.
  26. Piedecausa MA, Mazón MJ, García García B and Hernández MD. 2007. Effects of total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in the diets of sharp snout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo). Aquaculture 263, 211-219.
  27. Stubbs CD and Smith AD. 1984. The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function. Biochim Biophys Acta 779, 89-137.
  28. Takeuchi T and Watanabe T. 1977. Requirement of carp for essential fatty acids. Fish Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 43, 893-898.
  29. Watanabe T, Takeuchi T and Wada M. 1981. Dietary lipid levels and ∝-tocopherol requirement of carp. Fish Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 47, 1585-1590.
  30. Watanabe T, Takeuchi T and Ogino C. 1975. Effect of dietary methyl linoleate and linolenate on growth of carp-II. Fish Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 41, 263-269.


Grant : 해양수산생명자원 확보 및 활용기반 구축

Supported by : 강릉원주대학교 산학협력단