Effects of Dietary Antioxidant Supplementation on the Growth, Serum Chemistry, Body Composition and Challenge Test Results of Juvenile Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii

항산화 기능 사료첨가제가 조피볼락(Sebastes schlegelii)의 성장, 체조성, 혈액성상 및 세균 공격성에 미치는 영향

Yun, Ahyeong;Kim, Hee Sung;Seo, Youngwan;Cho, Sung Hwoan;Bae, Jun Young

  • Received : 2016.05.27
  • Accepted : 2016.06.03
  • Published : 2016.06.30


The effects of dietary antioxidant [saltwort (SW), leek (LK), and dandelion (DD)] supplementation on the growth, body composition, serum chemistry, and challenge test results of juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, were determined. In an experiment, 320 fish were randomly distributed into eight, 50-L flow-through tanks (40 fish per tank). Four experimental diets were prepared: the control diet (Con) with synthetic antioxidant: and diets with SW, LK, or DD from natural sources. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate tanks of fish, which were hand-fed to satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. After the 8-week feeding trial, 20 fish from each tank were artificially infected with Streptococcus iniae and monitored for 6 days. The dietary additives did not affect survival, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), or plasma chemistry. However, the cumulative mortality of fish fed the SW, LK and DD diets was lower than that of fish fed the control diet beginning 4 days after infection. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with SW, LK, and DD did not affect the growth, FE, PER, or plasma chemistry of rockfish. However, dietary inclusion of SW, LK, and DD lowered the mortality of rockfish following infection with S. iniae.


Rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii);Additive;Antioxidant;Challenge test;Streptococcus iniae


  1. Ahn JM, Lee SH and Song YS. 2001. Biological functions in leek. Food Indus Nutr 6, 68-73.
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edn). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  3. Cho SH, Kim HS, Myung SH, Jung W, Choi J and Lee S. 2015. Optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii, Hilgendorf 1880). Aquacult Res 46, 2954-2961.
  4. Bai SC, Koo J, Kim K and Kim S. 2001. Effects of Chlorella powder as a feed additive on growth performance in juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (Hilgendorf). Aquacult Res 32, 92-98.
  5. Cho SH and Lee S. 2012. Onion powder in the diet of the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Effects on the growth, body composition, and lysozyme activity. J World Aquacult Soc 43, 30-38.
  6. Cho SH, Jeon GH, Kim HS, Kim DS and Kim C. 2013. Effects of dietary Scutellaria baicalensis extract on growth, feed utilization and challenge test of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 26, 90-96.
  7. Choi S, Ko S, Park G, Lim S, Yu G, Lee J and Bai SC. 2004. Utilization of song-gang stone as dietary additive in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J Aquaculture 17, 39-45.
  8. Chung YC, Chun HK, Yang JY, Kim JY, Han EH, Kho YH and Jeong HG. 2005. Tungtungmadic acid, a novel antioxidant, from Salicornia herbacea. Arch Pharm Res 28, 1122-1126.
  9. Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11, 1-42.
  10. Dada AA, Oviawe NE. 2011. The use of bitter kola Garcinia kola dry seed powder as a natural growth-promoting agent for African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Afr J Aquat Sci 36, 97-100.
  11. Heo S, Wang M. 2008. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity effect of extracts from Taraxacum mongolicum H. Kor J Pharmacogn 39, 255-259.
  12. Deng J, An Q, Bi B, Wang Q, Kong BL, Tao L and Zhang X. 2011. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on growth performance and plasma biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiol Biochem 37, 959-967.
  13. Galina J, Yin G, Ardo L and Jeney Z. 2009. The use of immunostimulating herbs in fish. An overview of research. Fish Physiol Biochem 35, 669-676.
  14. Han SH, Hwang JK, Park SN, Lee KH, Kang IK, Kim KS and Kim KH. 2005. Potential effect of solvent fractions of Taraxacum mongolicum H. on protection of gastric mucusa. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37, 84-89.
  15. Hwang YP, Yun HJ, Chun HK, Chung YC, Kim HK, Jeong MH, Yoon TR and Jeong HG. 2009. Protective mechanisms of 4-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoyl quinic acid from Salicornia herbacea against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage. Chemico-Biological Interactions 181, 366-376.
  16. Im SA, Kim GW and Lee CK. 2003. Immunomodulatory activity of Salicornia herbacea L. components. Korean J Nutr 40, 5-13.
  17. Jeon GH, Cho SH, Lee SM, Nam TJ and Kim DS. 2013. Effects of the dietary inclusion of Porphyra and sea tangle Laminaria japonica on the growth, feed utilization, body composition, and plasma chemistry of juvenile Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelei. Korean J Fish Aquat Sci 46, 546-551.
  18. Jeon GH, Kim HS, Myung SH and Cho SH. 2014. The effect of the dietary substitution of fishmeal with tuna by-product meal on growth, body composition, plasma chemistry and amino acid profiles of juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). Aquacult Nutr 20, 753-761.
  19. Kim KH, Hwang YJ and Bai SC. 1999. Resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) fed diets containing different doses of aloe. Aquaculture 180, 13-21.
  20. Jo YC, Ahn JH, Chon SM, Lee KS, Bae TJ and Kang DS. 2002. Studies on pharmacological effects of glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.). Korean J Med Crop Sci 10, 93-99.
  21. Jung H, Noh K, Cho H, Park J, Choi C, Kwon T and Song Y. 2003. Effect of buchu (Allium tuberosum) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense system in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. Korean J Life Sci 13, 333-342.
  22. Kim MW. 2007. Effects of Salicornia herbacea L. supplementation on blood glucose and lipid metabolites in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J Nutr 40, 5-13.
  23. Kim K, Wang XJ and Bai SC. 2001. Reevaluation of the optimum dietary protein level for the maximum growth of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlgeli (Hilgendorf). Aquacult Res 32 (Suppl. 1), 119-125.
  24. Kim C, Kang B, Jee H, Choi A, Kim C, Cho Y, Hahn H and Nam KD. 2005. Effect of chitosan-based feed additive on the growth and quality of cultured Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J Chitin Chitosan 10, 121-127.
  25. Kim KT, Jeon GH, Cho SH, Lim SG, Kwon M and Yoo J. 2013. Effects of dietary inclusion of various concentrations of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract on growth, body composition, serum chemistry and challenge test of far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus). Aquacult Res 44, 1502-1510.
  26. KOSIS. 2016. Korean Statistical Information Service. Korea.
  27. Lee S, Hwang U and Cho SH. 2000. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary moisture content on growth, body composition and gastric evacuation of juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). Aquaculture 187, 399-409.
  28. Kong C, Kim YA, Kim M, Park J, Kim J, Kim S, Lee B, Nam TJ and Seo Y. 2008. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from Salicornia herbacea inhibit matrix metalloproteinase in HT1080 cells. Toxicol in Vitro 22, 1742-1748.
  29. Kong C, Kim JA, Qian ZJ, Kim YA, Lee JI, Kim SK, Nam TJ and Seo YW. 2009. Protective effect of isorhamnetin 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside from Salicornia herbacea against oxidation-induced cell damage. Food Chem Taxicol 47, 1914-1920.
  30. Lee S, Yoo J and Lee JY. 1996. The use of soybean meal, corn gluten meal, meat meal, meat and bone meal, or blood meal as a dietary protein source replacing fish meal in Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). Korean J Ani Nut Feed 20, 21-30.
  31. Lee YS, Lee HS, Shin KH, Kim BK and Lee SH. 2004. Constituents of the halophyte Salicornia herbacea. Arch Pharm Res 27, 1034-1036. 10.1007/BF02975427.
  32. Lee KY, Lee MH, Chang IY, Yoon SP, Lim DY and Jeon YJ. 2006. Macrophage activation by polysaccharide fraction isolated from Salicornia herbacea. J Ethnopharm 103, 372-378.
  33. Lee J, Lee B, Kim K, Han H, Park G, Lee J, Yun H and Bai SC. 2013. Optimal feeding frequency for juvenile Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii fed commercial diet at two different water temperatures. Korean J Fish Aquati Sci 46, 761-768.
  34. Park S and Kim K. 2004. Isolation and identification of antioxidant flavonoids from Salicornia herbacea L. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 47, 120-123.
  35. Song H, Kim D, Jung Y and Lee M. 2007. Antioxidant activities of red hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) against lipid peroxidation and the formation of radicals. Korean J Food Nutr 20, 150-157.
  36. Rhee KS, Park HJ and Cho JY. 2009. Salicornia herbacea: botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of halophyte marsh plant. J Med Plants Res 3, 548-555.
  37. Seo J, Kim K and Lee S. 2009. Effects of supplemental herb medicines in the diets on growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile and grower rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. J Aquaculture 22, 112-117.
  38. Shin KS, Boo HO, Jeon MW and Ko JY. 2002. Chemical components of native plant, Salicornia herbacea L. Korean J Plant Res 15, 216-220.
  39. Soosean C, Marimuthu K, Sudhakaran S and Xavier R. 2010. Effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) extracts as a feed additive on growth and hematological parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14, 605-611.
  40. Takasaki M, Konoshima T, Tokuda H, Masuda K, Arai Y, Shiojima K and Ageta H. 1999. Anti-carcinogenic activity of Taraxacum plant. I. Biol Pharm Bull 22, 602-5.
  41. Tang S, Kerry JP, Sheehan D and Buckley DJ. 2001. A comparative study of tea catechins and α-tocopherol as antioxidants in cooked beef and chicken meat. Eur Food Res Technol 213, 286-289.
  42. Turan F and Akyurt I. 2005. Effects of red clover extract on growth performance and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Bruchell, 1822). Fish Sci 71, 618-620.
  43. Turan F, Güurek M, Yaglioglu D. 2007. Dietary red clover (Trifolium pratense) on growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Ani Vet Adv 6, 1429-1433.
  44. Wang X, Kim K, Park G, Choi S, Jun H and Bai SC. 2003. Evaluation of L-ascorbyl-2-glucose as the source of vitamin C for juvenile Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (Hilgendorf). Aquacult Res 34, 1337-1341.
  45. Wenzel U, Kuntz S, Brendel MD and Daniel H. 2000. Dietary flavone is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 60, 3823-3831.
  46. Won K, Kim S and Park S. 2004. The effects of β-1,3/1,6-linked glucan in the diet on immune responses of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus by oral administration. J Fish Pathol 17, 29-38.
  47. Yoon T. 2008. Effect of water extracts from foot of Taraxacum officinale in innate and adaptive immune responses in mice. Korean J Food Nutr 21, 275-282.

Cited by

  1. Effects of dietary inclusion of yacon, ginger and blueberry on growth, body composition and challenge test of juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli ) against Edwardsiella tarda 2017,


Grant : 해양중소벤처지원

Supported by : (주) 크린바이오