- Volume 26 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Enhanced Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Bee Pollen by Wet-grinding Technology
벌 화분에서 습식 나노화 공정에 의한 유효성분의 추출
Choi, Yun-Sik;Suh, Hwa-Jin;Chung, Il Kyung
- Received : 2016.02.17
- Accepted : 2016.03.30
- Published : 2016.06.30
Bee pollen is produced by honeybees and is considered one of the most balanced and nourishing nutritional supplements available. Historically, bee pollen has been prescribed for its healing properties and consumed for its high-energy supply. Recent research has provided evidence that bee pollen has diverse biological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and even anti-cancer effects. However, the outer membrane of the pollen grain, exine, is highly resistant to most acidic solutions, high pressure, and even digestive enzymes, and the resulting low bioavailability limits its nutritional and clinical applications. This study applied a wet-grinding method to destroy the exine effectively, and it then examined the pollen's enhanced biological activity. First, microscopic observations provided strong evidence that wet grinding destroyed the exine time-dependently. In addition, the content of polyphenols, well-known ingredients of bee pollen and used as internal standards for the quality control of commercial pollen preparations, increased up to 11-fold with wet grinding. Further, the anti-oxidant activity demonstrated on the ABTS anti-oxidant assay, as well as the DPPH radical scavenging assay, was also dramatically increased. Together, the results presented here support a new technology by which bee pollen can be used as a resource for medical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications.
- Aličić, D., Šubarić, D., Jašić, M., Pašalić, H. and Ačkar, Đ. 2014. Antioxidant properties of pollen. Hrana u zdravlju i Bolesti. 3, 6-12.
- Bergs, J. W., Wacker, M. G., Hehlgans, S., Piiper, A., Multhoff, G., Rödel, C. and Rödel, F. 2015. The role of recent nanotechnology in enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1856, 130-143.
- Bhana, S., Wang, Y. and Huang, X. 2015. Nanotechnology for enrichment and detection of circulating tumor cells. Nanomedicine (Lond). 10, 1973-1990. https://doi.org/10.2217/nnm.15.32
- Bogdanov, S. 2015. Pollen: production, nutrition and health: A review. www.bee-hexagon.net.
- Fanali, C., Dugo, L. and Rocco, A. 2013. Nano-liquid chromatography in nutraceutical analysis: determination of polyphenols in bee pollen. J. Chromatogr. A 25, 270-274.
- Kim, S. B., Jo, Y. H., Liu, Q., Ahn, J. H., Hong, I. P., Han, S. M., Hwang, B. Y. and Lee, M. K. 2015. Optimization of extraction condition of bee pollen using response surface methodology: Correlation between anti-melanogenesis, antioxidant activity, and phenolic content. Molecules 20, 19764-19774. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119656
- Franchi, G. G., Franchi, G., Corti, P. and Pompella, A. 1997. Microspectrophotometric evaluation of digestibility of pollen grains. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 50, 115-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02436031
- Kafadar, I. H., Güney, A., Türk, C. Y., Oner, M. and Silici, S. 2012. Royal jelly and bee pollen decrease bone loss due to osteoporosis in an oophorectomized rat model. Eklem. Hastalik. Cerrahisi. 23, 100-105.
- Kas'ianenko, V. I., Komisarenko, I. A. and Dubtsova, E. A. 2011. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia with honey, pollen and bee bread in patients with different body mass. Ter. Arkh. 83, 58-62.
- Komosinska-Vassev, K., Olczyk, P., Kaźmierczak, J., Mencner, L. and Olczyk, K. 2015. Bee pollen: chemical composition and therapeutic application. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2015, 297425.
- Kroyer, G. and Hegedus, N. 2001. Evaluation of bioactive properties of pollen extracts as functional dietary food supplement. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 2, 171-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(01)00039-X
- Molyneux, P. 2004. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin, J. Sci. Technol. 26, 211-219.
- Mukhopadhyay, S. S. 2014. Nanotechnology in agriculture: prospects and constraints. Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 7, 63-71.
- Nair, A. B., Kaushik, A., Attimarad, M. and Al-Dhubiab, B. E. 2012. Enhanced oral bioavailability of calcium using bovine serum albumin microspheres. Drug Deliv. 19, 277-285. https://doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2012.704094
- Ramachandraiah, K., Han, S. G. and Chin, K. B. 2015. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 28, 290-302.
- Nanaware-Kharade, N., Thakkar, S., Gonzalez Iii, G. A. and Peterson, E. C. 2015. A nanotechnology-based platform for extending the pharmacokinetic and binding properties of anti-methamphetamine antibody fragments. Sci. Rep. 5, 12060. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep12060
- Osawa, T. and Namiki, M. 1981. A novel type of antioxidant isolated from leaf wax of eucalyptus leaves. Agric. Biol. Chem. 45, 735-739.
- Pascoal, A., Rodrigues, S., Teixeira, A., Feás, X. and Estevinho, L. M. 2014. Biological activities of commercial bee pollens: antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antioxidant and antiinflammatory. Food Chem. Toxicol. 63, 233-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.11.010
- Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26, 1231-1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3
- Shakeri, A. and Sahebkar, A. 2015. Nanotechnology: A successful approach to improve oral bioavailability of phytochemicals. Recent Pat. Drug Deliv. Formul. 9, 1. https://doi.org/10.2174/1872211309666141218145408
- Tohamy, A. A., Abdella, E. M., Ahmed, R. R. and Ahmed, Y. K. 2014. Assessment of anti-mutagenic, anti-histopathologic and antioxidant capacities of Egyptian bee pollen and propolis extracts. Cytotechnology 66, 283-297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-013-9568-0
- Ulbricht, C., Conquer, J., Giese, N., Khalsa, K. P., Sklar, J., Weissner, W. and Woods, J. 2009. An evidence-based systematic review of bee pollen by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J. Diet. Suppl. 6, 290-312. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390210903081381
- Wang, B., Diao, Q., Zhang, Z., Liu, Y., Gao, Q., Zhou, Y. and Li, S. 2013. Antitumor activity of bee pollen polysaccharides from Rosa rugosa. Mol. Med. Rep. 7, 1555-1558.