The Functional Change of Accommodation and Convergence in the Mid-Forties by Using Smartphone

스마트폰 사용에 의한 40대 중년층의 조절 및 폭주기능 변화

  • Received : 2016.05.26
  • Accepted : 2016.06.22
  • Published : 2016.06.30


Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of excessive near work by using a smartphone on subjective symptoms and accommodative and convergent function in their 40s. Methods: A total of 40 subjects(male, 10; female, 30; age, $43{\pm}7.2year$) in their 40s who have monocular and binocular visual acuities of 0.8 and 1.0, respectively, were divided into presbyopia group and non-presbyopia group. The subjects were asked to watch a movie on the screen of smartphone for 30 minutes. Their accommodative amplitude and facility, and relative accommodation were measured and compared before and after the use of smartphone. Changes in fusional vergence and near heterophoria by using smartphone were also evaluated. Furthermore, the change of subjective symptoms was surveyed using a questionnaire. Results: The presbyopia in mid-40s reported discomfort in an order of asthenopia, blur and dryness after the use of smartphone. Accommodative function and non-strabismic binocular function were generally decreased. Accommodative functions such as monocular accommodative amplitude, and relative accommodation were significantly decreased after smartphone use, and the change of phoria was observed as a result of decreased convergence and divergence. Negative fusional vergence was also significantly reduced. On the other hand, non-presbyopia in mid-40s reported discomfort in an order of asthenopia, dryness and blur, and only accommodative amplitude among the accommodative functions was significantly reduced. Significant reduction of negative fusional vergence was also observed. Conclusion: From the results, it was confirmed that the subjective discomfort of mid-40s after smarphone use might be related to whether presbyopia or not. It was due to not only the reduction of accommodative function but also the overall deterioration of visual function including heterophoria and fusional vergence. Therefore, it suggests that the accurate determination of the cause based on the overall visual functional tests such as heterophoria, fusional vergence as well as the decrease of accommodation due to the aging may be necessary when the mid-40s feels discomfortable symptoms by near work.


Mid-Forties;Presbyopia;Non-presbyopia;Smartphone;Accommodative amplitude;Accommodative facility;Relative accommodation;Fusional vergence;Heterophoria;Subjective discomfort


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