- Volume 20 Issue 4
Damages of large embankment dams by recent strong earthquakes in the world highlight the importance of seismic security of dams. Some of recent dam construction projects for water storage and hydropower are located in highly seismic zone, hence the seismic performance evaluation is an important issue. While state-of-the-art numerical analysis technology is generally utilized in practice for seismic performance evaluation of large dams, physical modeling is also carried out where new construction technology is involved or numerical analysis technology cannot simulate the behavior appropriately. Geotechnical centrifuge modeling is widely adopted in earthquake engineering to simulate the seismic behavior of large earth structures, but sometimes it can't be applied for large embankment dams due to various limitations. This study proposes a dynamic centrifuge testing method for large embankment dams and evaluated its applicability. Scaling relations for a case which model scale and g-level are different could be derived considering the stress conditions and predominant period of the structure, which is equivalent to previously suggested scaling relations. The scaling principles and testing method could be verified by modified modeling of models using a model at different acceleration levels. Finally, its applicability was examined by centrifuge tests for an embankment dam in Korea.
Physical modeling;Seismic performance evaluation;Embankment dam;Modeling of models;Generalized scaling relations
- Zhang JM, Yang Z, Gao X, Zhang J. Geotechnical aspoects and seismic damage of the 156-m-high Zipingpu concrete-faced rockfill dam following the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. 2015;76:145-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2015.03.014
- Matsumoto N, Sasaki T, Ohmachi T. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and dams, Proc. Int. Symp. On Dams and Reservoirs under Changing Challenges. c2011.
- Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. Dam design code. c2011.
- Ng CWW, Li XS, Van Laak PA, Hou DYJ. Centrifuge modeling of loose fill embankment subjected to uni-axial and bi-axial earthquake, Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. 2004;24(4):305-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2003.12.002
- Peiris LMN, Madabhush SPG, Schofield AN. Centrifuge modeling of rock-fill embankments on deep loose saturated sand deposits subjected to earthquakes. J Geotech Geoenviron. 2008;134(9):1364-1374. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2008)134:9(1364)
- Sharp MK, Adalier K. Seismic response of earth dam with varying depth of liquefiable foundation layer. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. 2006;26(11):1028-1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.02.007
- Kim MK, Lee SH, Choo YW, Kim DS. Seismic behaviors of earth-core and concrete-faced rock-fill dams by dynamic centrifuge tests. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. 2011;31(11):1579-1593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.06.010
- Ko HY. Summary of the state-of-the-art in centrifuge model testing. Centrifuges in Soil Mechanics. Craig, James and Schofield Eds. Balkema. Rotterdam. c1988: p. 11-18.
- Gazetas G. Seismic response of earth dams: some recent developments. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. 1987;6(1):2-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0267-7261(87)90008-X
- Garnier J, Gaudin C, Springman SM, Culligan PJ, Goodings D, Konig D, Kutter B, Phillips R, Randolph MF, Thorel L. Catalog ueof scaling laws and similitude questions in geotechnical centrifuge modelling. Int. J. Phys. Modelling Geotech. 2007;7(3):1-23. https://doi.org/10.1680/ijpmg.2007.070401
- Iai S, Tobita T, Nakahara T. Generalized scaling relations for dynamic centrifuge tests. G otechnique. 2005;55(5):355-362. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2005.55.5.355
- Bray JD, Travasarou T. Simplified Procedure for Estimating Earthquake-Induced Deviatoric Slope Displacements. J Geotech Geoenviron. 2007;133(4):381-392. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:4(381)
- Cho GC, Doods J, Santamarina JC. Particle shape effects on packing density, stiffness, and strenth: natural and crushed sands. J Geotech Geoenviron. 2006;132(5):591-602. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:5(591)
- Seed HB, Idriss IM. Soil moduli and damping factors for dynamic response analyses. Report No. EERC 70-10. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Univ. of California Berkeley, California. c1970; p. 1-43.
- Iai S, Sugano T. Soil-structure interaction studies through shaking-table tests. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Earthquake Geotech. Engrg. Lisbon. c1999. p.927-940.
- Taylor RN. Geotechnical centrifuge technology. Blackie Academic. London, UK. c1995.
- Kim DS, Lee SH, Choo YW. Self-balanced Earthquake Simulator on Centrifuge and Dynamic Performance Verification. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. 2013;17(4):651-661. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-013-1591-3
- Ha IS. Evaluation for Fundamental Periods of Domestic Rockfill Dams with Micro-earthquake Records. Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society. 2011;12(6):53-60.
- Ryan, H. Ricker, Ormsby, Klauder, Butterworth - A Choice of Wavelets, CSEG Recorder. 1994;19(7):8-9.
- Okamoto S. Introduction to Earthquake Engineering. 2nd Edition. University of Tokyo Press. c1984. p. 466-477.
- Ha IS, Kim NR. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Coarse Granular Materials with Respect to Gradation Characteristics. Journal of the Korean geotechnical society. 2013;29(8):5-14.
연구 과제 주관 기관 : 국민안전처