Estrogenic and Androgenic Potential of Phthalates and Their Alternatives

프탈레이트류와 그 대체물질의 내분비계 교란독성: 에스트로겐성과 안드로겐성을 중심으로

  • Kwon, Bareum (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yongin University) ;
  • Ji, Kyunghee (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yongin University)
  • Received : 2016.03.31
  • Accepted : 2016.06.09
  • Published : 2016.06.30


Objectives: Although information on the toxicity of phthalate diesters is readily available, little is known about phthalate alternatives. The present article provides a summary of available information on the toxicity of phthalate diesters and their alternatives, with a special focus on estrogenicity and androgenicity. Methods: We collected a battery of in vitro and in vivo assay data from the literature to assess the estrogenicity/anti-estrogenicity and androgenicity/anti-androgenicity of 15 phthalate diesters and 21 phthalate alternatives. Results: A number of in vitro studies show that certain phthalate diesters can bind to estrogen receptors and have a weak estrogenic potential. However, this potential was not seen in in vivo studies. Phthalate diesters produced anti-androgenic effects in animals by reducing testosterone production. Among them, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most potent. While almost all phthalate alternatives have a lower toxic potential than does DEHP, evidence of reproductive toxicity and estrogenic potential were found in several substances. Conclusion: Significant data gaps exist for phthalate alternatives regarding reproductive endocrine disruption, requiring further investigation.


Alternatives;anti-androgenicity;endocrine disruption;estrogenicity;phthalate


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea


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