DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Wake Volume Characteristics Considering Artificial Reef Canyon Intervals Constructed by Flatly Distributed Artificial Reef Set

평면 분산된 인공어초 집합의 어초협곡 간격에 따른 후류체적 특성

Jung, Somi;Kim, Dongha;Na, Won-Bae
정소미;김동하;나원배

  • Received : 2015.07.17
  • Accepted : 2016.06.24
  • Published : 2016.06.30

Abstract

Considering the artificial reef (AR) canyon intervals facilitated by flatly distributed placement models, the wake volumes of 25 AR sets were characterized through the following works. First, twenty-five different canyon intervals were established to investigate how the intervals affect the wake volumes of the AR placement models, each with nine cube-type ARs. Second, the element-based finite-volume method was used to facilitate flow analyses. Third, the so-called wake volume concept was adopted, and finally a reasonable placement interval was found based on the size of the wake volumes and the associated unit propagation indices. From the analysis results, it was found that a maximum wake volume of 25.18 m3 was generated when the longitudinal and transverse intervals were fixed at 6 m and 0 m, respectively. Thus, to magnify the wake volume, it is recommended that artificial reefs be placed at intervals of 6 m (3 times the reef length) in the flow direction, with no intervals in the normal direction, implicitly indicating that an intensively stacked placement model is a better option to efficiently secure a larger wake volume for the cube-type ARs.

Keywords

Artificial reef set;Wake volume;Artificial reef canyon;Flatly distributed placement model;Element-based finite-volume method

References

  1. ANSYS Inc., 2009. ANSYS CFX, Release 12.1. ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA.
  2. Ambrose, R.F., Swarbrick, S.L., 1989. Comparison of Fish Assemblages on Artificial and Natural Reefs off the Coast of Southern California. Bulletin of Marine Science, 44(2), 718–733.
  3. Bohnsack, J.A., 1989. Are High Densities of Fishes at Artificial Reefs the Result of Habitat Limitation or Behavior Preference? Bulletin of Marine Science, 44(2), 631–645.
  4. Bohnsack, J.A., Harper, D.E., McClellan, D.B., Hulsbeck, M., 1994. Effects of Reef size on Colonization and Assemblage Structure of Fishes at Artificial Reefs off Southeastern Florida, U.S.A. Bulleting of Marine Science, 55(2–3), 796–823.
  5. Bombace, G., Fabi, G., Fiorentini, L., Speranza, S., 1994. Analysis of the Efficacy of Artificial Reefs Located in Five Different Areas of the Adriatic Sea. Bulletin of Marine Science, 55(2–3), 559–580.
  6. Bortone, S.A., 2011. Resolving the Attraction-production Dilemma in Artificial Reef Research: Some Yeas and Nays. Fisheries, 23(3), 6–10.
  7. Charbonnel, E., Serre, C., Ruitton, S., Harmelin, J.G., Jensen, A., 2002. Effects of Increased Habitat Complexity on Fish Assemblages Associated with Large Artificial Reef Units (French Mediterranean coast). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59, S208–S213. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2002.1263
  8. Frazer, T.K., Lindberg, W.J., 1994. Refuge Spacing Similarly Affects Reef-associated Species from Three Phyla. Bulleting of Marine Science, 55(2–3), 388–400.
  9. Claudet, J., Pelletier, D., 2004. Marine Protected Areas and Artificial Reefs: a Review of the Interaction Between Management and Scientific studies. Aquatic Living Resources, 17, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr:2004017
  10. Falcão, M., Santos, M.N., Vicente, M., Monteiro, C.C., 2007. Biogeochemical Processes and Nutrient Cycling within an Artificial Reef off Southern Portugal. Marine Environmental Research, 63, 429–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2006.12.001
  11. Fox, W.R., McDonald, A.T., Pritchard, P.J., 2004. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley.
  12. Grossman, G.D., Jones, G.P., Seaman, W.J., 1997. Do Artificial Reefs Increase Regional Fish Production? A Review of Existing Data. Fisheries, 22(4), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446(1997)022<0017:DARIRF>2.0.CO;2
  13. Grove, R.S., Sonu, C.J., 1985. Fishing Reef Planning in Japan. In: D’Itri, F.M. (Eds.), Artificial Reefs Marine and Freshwater Applications. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 187–251.
  14. Kim, D., 2015. Flow Characteristics of Artificial Reef Sets in Three-dimensional Placement Models. Master Thesis, Pukyong National University.
  15. Kim, D., Han, S., Yoon, H.S., Na, W.B., 2015. Intensively Stacked Placement Models of Artificial Reef Sets Characterized by Wake and Upwelling Regions. The 14th International Conference on Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan, 129–130.
  16. Kim, D., Woo, J., Na, W.B., Yoon, H.S., 2014b. Flow and Structural Response Characteristics of a Box-type Artificial Reef. Journal of the Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers, 26(3), 113–119 (In Korean). https://doi.org/10.9765/KSCOE.2014.26.3.113
  17. Le, Q.T.N., Na, W.B., 2015. Current Practice of Vietnamese Artificial Reefs and Effect of Seawater Temperature on Wake Volume of a Concrete Reef Ball. The 14th International Conference on Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan, 37–38.
  18. Kim, D., Woo, J., Yoon, H.S., Na, W.B., 2014a. Wake Lengths and Structural Responses of Korean General Artificial Reefs. Ocean Engineering, 92, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.09.040
  19. Kim, H.S., Lee, J.W., Kim, J.R., Yoon, H.S., 2009a. Estimation of Countermeasures and Efficient Use of Volume of Artificial Reefs Deployed in Fishing Grounds. Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environmental Engineering, 12(3), 181–187 (In Korean).
  20. Kim, H.S., Lee, J.W., Won, S.H., Kim, J.R., Yoon, H.S., 2009b. Estimation of Efficient Use of Volume and Facility Volume Distribution of Artificial Reefs deployed in the Busan Sea Region. Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environmental Engineering, 12(4), 255–263 (In Korean).
  21. Miller, D.C., Norkko, A., Pilditch, C.A., 2002. Influence of Diet on Dispersal of Horse Mussel Atrina zelandica Biodeposits. Marine Ecological Progress Series 242, 153–167. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps242153
  22. Nakamura, M., 1985. Evolution of Artificial Reef Concepts in Japan. Bulletin of Marine Science, 37(1), 271–278.
  23. Oh, T.G., Otake, S., Lee, M.O., 2011. Estimating the Effective Wake Region (Current Shadow) of Artificial Reefs. Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management, Edited by Shinyaotake, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.,279-295.
  24. Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., 1997. Artificial Reefs and Fisheries Exploitation: a Review of the ‘Attraction and Production’ Debate, the Influence of Design and Its Significance for Policy. Fisheries Research, 31, 39–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(97)00019-2
  25. Research Center for Ocean Industrial Development, 2015. Wake Region Characteristics of Labyrinth-type Artificial Reefs. Pukyong National University (In Korean).
  26. Pitcher, T.J., Seaman, W., 2000. Petrarch’s Principle: How Protected Human-made Reefs Can Help the Reconstruction of Fisheries and Marine Ecosystems. Fish and Fisheries, 1, 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-2979.2000.00010.x
  27. Prairie, J.C., Sutherland, K.R., Nickols, K.J., Kaltenberg, A.M., 2012. Biophysical Interactions in the Plankton: a Cross-Scale Review. Limnology and Oceanography Fluids and Environments, 2, 121–145. https://doi.org/10.1215/21573689-1964713
  28. Research Center for Ocean Industrial Development, 2013. Evaluation of the Functions of and Development of a Placement Model for Artificial Reefs (ARs) Considering Sea Conditions. Pukyong National University (In Korean).
  29. Sawaragi, T., 1995. Coastal Engineering—Waves, Beaches, Wave–Structure Interactions. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  30. Sheng, Y.P., 2000. Physical Characteristics and Engineering at Reef Sites. Artificial Reef Evaluation with Application to Natural Marine Habitats, Edited by William Seaman, Jr., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA., 51–94.
  31. Takeuchi, T., 1991. Design of Artificial Reefs in Consideration of Environmental Characteristics, pp. 195–203. In Japan–US Symposium on Artificial Habitats for Fisheries Proceedings. Edited by M. Nakamura, R.S. Grove, and C.J. Sonu. Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA, USA.
  32. Versteeg, H.K., Malalasekera, W., 1995. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics. In The Finite Element Volume Method. Longman Group Ltd., London, UK.
  33. Woo, J., Kim, D., Yoon, H.S., Na, W.B., 2014. Characterizing Korean General Artificial Reefs by Drag Coefficients. Ocean Engineering, 82, 105–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.02.025
  34. Woo, J., Na, W.B., 2014. Drag Coefficients of Stock and Stockless Anchors. Marine Technology Society Journal, 48(3), 138-145. https://doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.48.3.12
  35. Yoon, H.S., Kim, D., Na, W.B., 2016. Estimation of Effective Usable and Burial Volumes of Artificial Reefs and the Prediction of Cost-effective Management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 120, 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.12.007