TDS Removal using Bio-sorption with AGS and High Concentration Nitrogen Removal

AGS의 생물흡착을 이용한 TDS 제거 및 고농도 질소제거에 관한 연구

Eom, Han Ki;Choi, Yoo Hyun;Joo, Hyun Jong

  • Received : 2016.04.15
  • Accepted : 2016.05.17
  • Published : 2016.05.30


This study aimed to assay the biological removal of TDS (total dissolved solids) from RO (reverse osmosis) rejected water. Following bio-sorption of TDS with AGS (aerobic granular sludge), the effects of TDS on biological nitrogen removal were examined. The bio-sorption of TDS after AGS treatment was confirmed by checking for TDS removal efficiency and surface analysis of microorganisms with SEM and EDS. Then, the effects of TDS on biological nitrogen removal and the denitrification efficiency were evaluated using the MBR reactor. According to the results, the bio-sorption of TDS with AGS was 0.1 mg TDS/mg AGS, and we confirmed that the microorganism surfaces had adsorbed the TDS. Biological nitrogen removal efficiency was measured at inhibiting denitrification at 4,000 mg/L of TDS-injected material. Based on this study, it is necessary to pretreat TDS-containing RO rejected water and to maintain TDS concentration lower than a specific value (≤4,000 mg/L), when considering biological nitrogen removal.


Aerobic Granular Sludge;Bio-sorption;Nitrogen;RO rejected water;TDS


  1. Bruus, J. H., Nielsen, P. H., and Keiding, K. (1992). On the Stability of Activated Sludge Flocs with Implications to Dewatering, Water Research, 26(12), pp. 1597-1604.
  2. American Public Health Association (APHA). (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington D.C. USA.
  3. Bassin, J. P., Pronk, M., Kraan, R., Kleerebezem, R., and van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. (2011). Ammonium Adsorption in Aerobic Granular Sludge, Activated Sludge and Anammox Granules, Water Research, 45(16), pp. 5257-5265.
  4. Bellona, C., Drewes, J. E., Xu, P., and Amy, G. (2004). Factors Affecting the Rejection of Organic Solutes During NF/RO Treatment-a Literature Review, Water Research, 38(12), pp. 2795-2809.
  5. Choi, J. S. (2013). Effects of TDS Adsorption by PSs on Substrate Utilization in Biological Treatment of RO Reject Water, Ph. D. Kyonggi University, Suwon, Korea, pp. 55-60. [Korean Literature]
  6. Fernandez-Nava, Y., Maranon, E., Soons, J., and Castrillon, L. (2008). Denitrification of Wastewater Containing High Nitrate and Calcium Concentrations, Bioresource Technology, 99(17), pp. 7976-7981.
  7. Gogate, P. R. and Pandit, A. B. (2004). A Review of Imperative Technologies for Wastewater Treatment I: Oxidation Technologies at Ambient Conditions, Advanced in Environmental Research, 8(3-4), pp. 501-551.
  8. Herrera, V. O., Banihani, Q., Leὀn, G., Khatri, C., James, A., and Alvarez, R. S. (2009). Toxicity of Fluoride to Microorganisms in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems, Water Research, 43(13), pp. 3177-3186.
  9. Jiang, H. L., Tay, J. H., Liu, Y., and Tay, S. T. L. (2003). Ca2+ Augmentation for Enhancement of Aerobically Grown Microbial Granules in Sludge Blanket Reactors, Biotechnology Letters, 25(2), pp. 95-99.
  10. Panswad, T. and Anan, C. (1999). Specific Oxygen, Ammonia, and Nitrate Uptake Rates of a Biological Nutrient Removal Process Treating Elevated Salinity Wastewater, Bioresource Technology, 70(3), pp. 237-243.
  11. Kim, H. G. (2015). A Study on the Effects of Ca2+ on Biological Nitrogen Removal in RO Concentrate and Adsorption Treatment, Ph. D. Kyonggi University, Suwon, Korea, pp. 130-135. [Korean Literature]
  12. Ministry of Environment (MOE). (2011). Water Reuse Basic Plan, Ministry of Environment, pp. 1-73. [Korean Literature]
  13. Oliveira, R. C., Hammer, P., Guibal, E., Taulemesse, J. M., and Garcia Jr, O. (2014). Characterization of Metal-biomass Interactions in the Lanthanum(III) Biosorption on Sargassum sp. using SEM/EDX, FTIR, and XPS: Preliminary Studies, Chemical Engineering Journal, 239, pp. 381-391.
  14. Radjenovic, J., Bagastyo, A., Rozendal, R. A., Mu, Y., Keller, J., and Rabaey, K. (2011). Electrochemical Oxidation of Trace Organic Contaminants in Reverse Osmosis Concentrate using RuO2/IrO2-Coated Titanium Anodes, Water Research, 45(4), pp. 1579-1586.
  15. Rensink, J. H. and Donker, H. J. G. W. (1991). The Effect of Contact Tank Operation on Bulking Sludge and Biosorption Processes, Water Science and Technology, 23(4-6), pp. 857-866.
  16. Sanchez, O., Aspe, E., Marti, M. C., and Roeckel, M. (2004). The Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Two-Step Kinetics of the Nitrifying Process, Water Environment Research, 76(1), pp. 73-80.
  17. Tay, J. H., Liu, Q. S., and Liu, Y. (2001). The Effects of Shear Force on the Formation, Structure and Metabolism of Aerobic Granules, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 57(1), pp. 227-233.
  18. Westerhoff, P., Moon, H., Minakata, D., and Crittenden, J. (2009). Oxidation of Organics in Retentates from Reverse Osmosis Wastewater Reuse Facilities, Water Research, 43(16), pp. 3992-3998.
  19. Xu, H., Liu, Y., and Tay, J. H. (2006). Effect of pH on Nickel Biosorption by Aerobic Granular Sludge, Bioresource Technology, 97(3), pp. 359-363.
  20. Zhou, T., Lim, T. T., Chin, S. S., and Fane, A. G. (2011). Treatment of Organics in Reverse Osmosis Concentrate From a Municipal Wastewater Reclamation Plant: Feasibility Test of Advanced Oxidation Processes with/without Pretreatment, Chemical Engineering Journal, 166(3), pp. 932-939.