- Volume 11 Issue 1
Numerous buildings have been damaged or destroyed in previous earthquakes by developing soft storey. Almost all the seismic codes have provisions to prevent soft storey in structures, most of them have recommended the ratio of stiffness between adjacent storeys, but none of them has proposed the method to calculate the storey stiffness. On the other hand a great number of previous researches on stiffness have been focused on approximate methods and accurate methods by using analytical softwares have been almost neglected. In this study, six accurate methods for calculating the storey stiffness have been studied on 246 two-bay reinforced concrete frames. It is shown with the results of the statistical study and structural analysis that method 3 in which there is no modification of the original model and the forces with triangular distribution similar to seismic forces are applied to the center of mass of all storeys has acceptable accuracy and desirable efficiency for designing and controlling structures.
storey stiffness;soft storey;calculation methods;earthquake;seismic codes
- Arnold, Ch. (2006), "Seismic issues in architectural design", FEMA 454: Designing for Earthquakes, A manual for Architects.
- Arslan, M.H. and Korkmaz, H.H. (2007), "What is to be learned from damage and failure of reinforced concrete structures during recent earthquakes in Turkey?", Eng. Fail. Anal., 14(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2006.01.003
- AS 1170.4-1993 (1993), Minimum Design Loads on Structures, Part 4: Earthquake Loads, Second edition, Published by Standards Australia, Sydney.
- AS 1170.4-2007 (2007), Australian Standard, Structural Design Actions, Part 4: Earthquake Actions in Australia, Published by Standards Australia, Sydney.
- ASCE 7-10 (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 2nd Edition, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, United States.
- Asteris, P.G. (2003), "Lateral stiffness of brick masonry infilled plane frames", J. Struct. Eng., 129(8), 1071-1079. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:8(1071)
- Caterino, N., Cosenza, E. and Azmoodeh, B. M. (2013), "Approximate methods to evaluate storey stiffness and interstory drift of RC buildings in seismic area", Structural Engineering & Mechanics, 46(2), 245-267. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2013.46.2.245
- Harmankaya, Z.Y. and Soyluk, A. (2012), "Architectural design of irregular buildings in turkey", Int. J. Civ. Envir. Eng. IJCEE-IJENS, 12(1), 42-48.
- Heidebrecht, A.C. and Stafford Smith, B. (1973), "Approximate analysis of tall wall-frame structures", J. Struct. Div., 99(2), 199-221.
- Hosseini, M. and Imagh-e-Naiini, M.R. (1999), "A quick method for estimating the lateral stiffness of building systems", Struct. Des. Tall Build., 8(3), 247-260. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1794(199909)8:3<247::AID-TAL126>3.0.CO;2-K
- IS 1893 (Indian Standard) (2002), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1: General Provisions and Buildings, Fifth Revision, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
- Mulgund, G.V. and Kulkarni, A.B. (2011), "Seismic assessment of RC frame buildings with brick masonry infills", Int. J. Adv. Eng. Sci. Technol., 2(2), 140-147.
- NTCS-04 (2004), Normas Tecnicas Complementarias Para Diseño Por Sismo, Gaceta Oficial del Distrito Federal. (in Spanish)
- NZS 1170.5:2004 (2004), Structural Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake Actions- New Zealand, Published by Standards New Zealand, New Zealand.
- Ozmen, C. and Ünay, A. (2007), "Commonly encountered seismic design faults due to the architectural design of residential buildings in Turkey", Build. Environ., 42(3), 1406-1416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.09.029
- Paulay, T. and Priestley, M.J.N. (1992), Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
- Ramasco, R. (2000), Lecture Notes of the Course on Buildings in Seismic Areas, University of Naples Federico II.
- RCDF-04 (2004), Reglamento de Construcciones Para el Distrito Federal, Diario Oficial de la Federacion, Mexico. (in Spanish)
- Saiful, I., Hussain, R.R., Jumaat, M.Z. and Mahfuz ud Darain, K. (2014), "Implication of rubber-steel bearing nonlinear models on soft storey structures", Comput. Concrete, 13(5), 603-619. https://doi.org/10.12989/cac.2014.13.5.603
- Schultz, A.E. (1992), "Approximating lateral stiffness of stories in elastic frames", J. Struct. Eng., 118(1), 243-263. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1992)118:1(243)
- Specification for Structures to be Built in Earthquake Areas (2007), Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Government of the Republic of Turkey.
- Standard No 2800 (2015), Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings (in Farsi) 4th Edition, Building and Housing Research Center, Tehran.
- Tabeshpour, M.R. (2012), "861. Iterative method for frequency updating of simple vibrating system", J. Vibroengineering, 14(3), 1370-1377.
- Tabeshpour, M.R., Azad, A. and Golafshani, A.A. (2012), Seismic Behavior and Retrofit of Infilled Frames, Earthquake-Resistant Structures - Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/earthquake-resistantstructures-design-assessment-and-rehabilitation.
- Tena-Colunga, A. (1999), "International seismic zone tabulation proposed by the 1997 UBC code: Observations for Mexico", Earthq. Spectra, 15(2), 331-360. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1586044
- Tena-Colunga, A. (2010), "Review of the soft first story irregularity condition of buildings for seismic design", Open Civ. Eng. J., 4, 1-15.
- Varughese, J.A., Menon, D. and Prasad, A.M. (2015), "Displacement-based seismic design of open ground storey buildings", Struct. Eng. Mech., 54(1), 19-33. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.019
- Wilbur, C.H., Norris, J.B. and Utku, S. (1976), Elementary structural analysis, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y.
- Yatagan, S. (2011), "Damages and failures observed in infill walls of reinforced concrete frame after 1999 kocaeli earthquake", ITU AZ, 8(1), 219-228.
- Zhao, B., Taucer, F. and Rossetto, T. (2009), "Field investigation on the performance of building structures during the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China", Eng. Struct., 31(8), 1707-1723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.02.039