Feeding behaviors of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) using electrical penetration graphs (EPGs)

  • Received : 2016.03.04
  • Accepted : 2016.03.31
  • Published : 2016.06.30


The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, is a very small sap-feeding insect of many commercial pear varieties that could be considered the most serious insect pest of pear. Detailed information on plant penetration activities of the pear psylla is essential to study its feeding behavior used to evaluate resistant traits to chemical control. The application of the electrical penetration graph technique (EPG) could provide a relevant insight into the nature of this resistance. EPG waveforms of C. pyricola were characterized on the basis of amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin. Feeding behaviors of C. pyricola were recorded and analyzed by EPG analysis. During EPG monitoring, waveform PA occurred at the start of stylet penetration of pear leaf epidermal cell. Waveform PB followed, in which stylet secreted saliva was observed. Waveforms PC1 and PC2 involved penetrating and sucking behaviors in parenchyma cells and vascular parenchyma, respectively. In addition, waveform PC1 represented salivation into bundle sheath cells and ingestion from parenchyma. Otherwise, behaviors of salivation into phloem and ingestion from phloem produced waveforms PE1 and PE2, respectively. On the other hand, ingestion from xylem tissues showed waveform PG. Among the feeding patterns of C. pyricola described above, phloem feeding patterns occurred most frequently, followed by xylem feeding and parenchyma penetration patterns in descending order.


Cacopsylla pyricola;electrical penetration graph (EPG);feeding behavior;pear psylla


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  1. Changed in Feeding Behavior of Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster(Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Activities of Several Insecticides vol.20, pp.1, 2016,