- Volume 17 Issue 4
Background: Symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) is an acquired B-cell malignant proliferation of antibody secreting plasma cells, characterized by end organ damage due to monoclonal immunoglobulin secretion. The aim of this study wa to determine the stage stratification according to an international scoring system in adult Pakistani MM patients at presentation. Materials and Methods: This single centre retrospective study extendedfrom January 2012 to December 2015. Data were retrieved from the departmental maintained records. Results: A total of 39 patients were diagnosed at our center with MM during the period of the study, 25 males and 14 females. Age ranged between 36 and 81 with a mean of
Multiple myeloma;international scoring system;stage;Pakistan
- Antonio Palumbo, Kenneth Anderson (2011). Multiple Myeloma. N Engl J Med, 364, 1046-60. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1011442
- Basit A, Siddiqui N, Hameed A, et al (2014). Factors affecting outcome of patients with multiple myeloma. J Ayub Med Coll Abottabad, 26, 376-9.
- Dimopoulos MA, Kastritis E, Michalis E, et al (2012). The International Scoring System (ISS) for multiple myeloma remains a robust prognostic tool independently of patients' renal function. Ann Oncol, 23, 722-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdr276
- Diwan AG, Gandhi SA, Krishna K, Shinde VP (2014). Clinical profile of the spectrum of multiple myeloma in a teaching hospital. Med J DY Patil Univ, 7, 185-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-2870.126335
- Eriksson M, Karisson M (1992). Occupational and other environ mental factors and multiple niycolma: a population based case-control study. Br1 Ind Med, 49, 95-103.
- El Husseiny NM, Kasem N, El Azeeim HA, Mattar MW (2014). Multiple myeloma: a descriptive study of 217 Egyptian patients. Ann Hematol, 93, 141-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-013-1849-3
- Greipp PR, San Miguel J, Durie BG, et al (2005). International staging system for multiple myeloma. J ClinOncol, 23, 3412-20. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.242
- Inam U, Raziq F, Tahir M, Wazir R, Rafiq A (2010). Hematological presentation of multiple myeloma in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Gomal J Med Sci, 8, 130-3.
- Kadar K, Wolf K, Tabori J, Karadi I, Varkonyi J (2012). The albumin and monoclonal protein ratio as prognostic marker for multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents. Pathol Oncol Res, 18, 557-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12253-012-9506-z
- Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Witzig TE, et al (2003). Review of 1027 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Mayo Clinic Proc, 78, 21-33. https://doi.org/10.4065/78.1.21
- McKenna RW, Kyle RA, Kuehl WM, et al (2008). WHO classification of tumours of haemopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Lyon: International agency for research on cancer, 202.
- Mehdi WA, Zainulabdeen JA, Mehde AA (2013). Investigation of the antioxidant status in multiple myeloma patients: effects of therapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3663-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3663
- Mansoor S, Siddiqui I, Adil S, Kakapeto GN, Fatmi Z (2005). Frequency of hypercalcemia in patients of multiple myeloma in Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 15, 409-12.
- Rajkumar SV (2011). Treatment of multiple myeloma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 8, 479-91. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.63
- Shaheen H, Ghanghroo I, Malik I (1999). Clinicopathological features and management of Pakistani patients with multiple myeloma. J Pak Med Assoc, 4, 233-7.
- Sashidharan N, Shenoy S, Kishore MK, Thanusubramanian H (2015). Comparison of two therapeutic regimes, lenalidomide with dexamethasone and thalidomide with dexamethasone, in the treatment of multiple myeloma at a tertiary care hospital in India. J Clin Diagn Res, 9, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/crj.12091
- Sun JJ, Zhang C, Zhou J, Yang HL (2015). Pooled analysis of pomalidomide for treating patients with multiple myeloma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 3163-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3163
- Sutandyo N, Firna E, Agustina J, et al (2015).Clinicopathology profile and bone involvement of multiple myeloma patients in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 6261-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6261
- Subramanian R, Basu D, Dutta TK (2009). Prognostic significance of bone marrow histology in multiple myeloma. Indian J Cancer, 46, 40-5. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.48594
- Vincent Rajkumar S (2014). Multiple myeloma: 2014 Update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol, 89, 999-1009.
- Wang L, Wang KF, Chang BY, Chen XQ, Xia ZJ (2015). Once-weekly subcutaneous administration of bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 2093-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.5.2093
- Younes M, Hachfi H, Hammouda F, Younes K, et al (2014). Survival prognosis factors in multiple myeloma. Tunis Med, 92, 399-40.